APA Reference guide

Topics: Citation, Thesis or dissertation, Bibliography Pages: 25 (2578 words) Published: March 5, 2014
University of Huddersfield

Referencing using APA 6th
This guide shows you how to reference
various resources both in the body of your
work and how to write your reference list.

For further help, visit the referencing library subject guide at http://hud.libguides.com/referencing
Also check the academic skills tutors’ webpages at
This is a condensed version of the University Referencing Guide. The full version of the reference guide including further
examples (e.g. music, theatre etc.) is available at
This APA 6th guide replaces the Harvard Referencing Guide

Referencing using APA 6th
When you have included information from published sources in your work, you must acknowledge this information fully and accurately by:

Identifying your sources, in a brief format, in the body of your written work (referred to as an in-text citation)

Providing a detailed list of your sources in an alphabetical list at the end of your work (known as a reference list).

There are a number of officially accepted formats that can be used to reference your work. The University preferred referencing style is APA. However, some departments may prefer another style, and it is wise to check with your academic tutors whether your subject area uses another system.

Why reference?

To show that you have done some research and have found relevant information.

To support any claims you have made through reference to an authoritative author on the subject.

To enable readers of your work to trace the sources used and draw their own conclusions from the original works which you have cited.

To avoid being accused of plagiarism. This is using someone else's work as your own without acknowledging it. If you do not acknowledge your source(s) you are guilty of academic misconduct. For more details, please refer to the Student Handbook of Regulations, Assessment Regulation 3 found on the University of Huddersfield website at


When do you need to reference?
You should acknowledge your source with a reference whenever you include: 

a theory, fact, argument or viewpoint attributable to a specific person.

statistics, examples or case studies.

illustrations or musical examples from another source.

direct quotations from another source.


paraphrases of any of the above

Quoting and paraphrasing:
Quoting: include author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material. If the quote comprises fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into the text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in midsentence, end the passage with quotation marks and cite the source in brackets immediately after the quotation marks and then continue the sentence. 40 or more words, display in a freestanding block of text and omit quotation marks. The quotation should be started on a new line and indented.

Paraphrasing: you are strongly recommended to provide a page or paragraph number if you are rewriting a particular section of the text and putting it into your own words. If you are summarising, i.e. giving an overview of the whole article/paper or theory rather than focussing on a specific part of the text, then page numbers are not required.

Digital object identifier (doi)
As part of the APA referencing style you may be asked to include a doi number (digital object identifier). It is a unique and permanent number used to identify electronic and physical documents that persist should a publisher or web address change. The doi begins with a 10 and contains a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. You can find out if an item has a doi by searching for it in Summon, saving the item to a temporary folder, click on saved items at the bottom of the screen and then select APA. Alternatively, it will be list on the opening page...
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