How do I … Compile a Bibliography According to APA?
The APA style is often used when writing research papers and documenting information sources in the sciences and social sciences. APA stands for the American Psychological Association. It is highly recommended to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010 for additional information on the APA style. A copy is located in your campus library.
Reference List Formatting Guidelines
Some important formatting guidelines include: Entitle the reference page References (centered) Arrange references alphabetically by the surname of the first author or the corporate author (if no author is provided, move the title into the author position) Provide a hanging indent for each reference entry Double-space the reference list
Sources used for the report or essay are provided in the APA References list. Some examples as to how to format commonly used references are provided below. Carefully note the use of punctuation (i.e. commas, periods), capitalization and italicization. Consult library staff and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010, for additional reference examples and rules.
Please note: In order to save space, the examples in this document have been formatted with single spacing. The sample reference list (page 6) shows the correct use of double-spaced citations.
Books - Print and Electronic
Format Books One Author Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. Hosseini, K. (2004). The kite runner. Toronto, ON: Anchor Canada.
Doob, A. N., & Cesaroni, C. (2004). Responding to youth crime in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E. M., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., ... Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. Merrian, S. B., & Cunningham, P. M. (Eds.). (1989). Handbook of adult and continuing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pearson, N. (1967). From villages to cities. In J. M. S. Careless, & R. C. Brown (Eds.), The Canadians 1867-1967 (pp. 621-638). Toronto, ON: MacMillan. Faber, B. L. (2003). Grasshopper. In World book encyclopedia (Vol. 8, pp. 327-328). Chicago, IL: World Book.
More Than Seven Authors
Article or Chapter in Edited Book
Format Website Website of an Organization or Government Website (no author, no date) Author, A. A., (Date of publication). Title of web page. Retrieved from
American Kennel Club. (1994, March 31). AKC meet the breeds: Labrador retriever. Retrieved from http://www.akc.org/breeds/labrador_retriever/index.cfm Egyptian cobra. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Egypt/ Egyptian-Cobra---------/3252 Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2011, June 17). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/ Davison, J. (2002, May 13). Techniques for an effective interview. Message posted to Tel-Links electronic mailing list, archived at http://www.tel.uk/mail-archive/ref/msg00897.htm Takayama-Ogawa, J., & Willette, J. (2007, March 14). What is information literacy? [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8&feature=relmfu Hollinger, F. (2008). Rural and agricultural finance in Tajikistan: Current status, challenges and perspectives [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://www.powershow.com/view/ 5e6aYTI4M/Rural_and_Agricultural_Finance_in_Tajikistan_flash_ppt_presentation NSCC Library Services, July 2012 Page 2
Podcast Message Posted on an Electronic Mailing List Online Video
Print Brochure Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2010). Crime prevention tips for homeowners...
Citations: with 6 or More Authors
(Mitchell, McInnis & Brennan, 2011) (Mitchell et al., 2011) (Brennan et al., 2010) (Brennan et al., 2010)
Organization as Author
(World Wildlife Federation, 2010)
No Author (Books, Brochures and Reports) (Use name of brochure, book, report) No Author (Chapters, Articles, or Web Pages) (Use first few words of chapter, article, web page)
(Eating Healthy, 2009)
(“How Plants”, 2006)
Direct Quote – Web Page
(American Kennel Club, 1994, para. 2)
Personal Communication (Private letters, Memos, Email) – Reference list entry not required
(K.L. Brennan, personal communication, June 28, 2011
NSCC Library Services, July 2012
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