APA: USING REFERENCES EFFECTIVELY
The Writing Centre
In this Presentation
• About academic writing, sources, plagiarism • Kinds of research
• General paper formatting
• In-text citations • References list
• Presenting new perspectives • Making a POINT • Proving your points with research • Giving the reader PROOF • Relating back to the overall argument of your paper • Adding some explanatory COMMENTARY
Types of Sources
• Original research, theories, or documented experiences. • Original work that you are writing. • Examples: carrying out your own experiments,
conducting surveys or interviews, reviewing primary documents such as letters and treatises, as well as documentaries.
• Supports your argument based on source material
authored by other people. • Information and arguments from other writers about a topic or primary source. • Examples: journal articles, books, films.
• Plagiarism can be intentional: • Buying a paper, submitting a friend’s, paying someone to write a paper for you, piecing together text from websites, etc.
• It can also result unintentionally from a failure to cite your
sources and/or cite them properly (i.e. according to a style guide)
Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism
• Paraphrase, quote, or summary
• Have you made the appropriate choice?
• Don’t rely too heavily on others’ work
• How much cited material is in each paragraph/section?
• Who’s really making the point?
• Know how to use your style guide properly,
keep it with you and reference it at all stages of research and writing!
• Summary: provides an understanding of the core
argument of a text in your own words.
• Paraphrasing: provides an understanding of one
aspect of the text in your own words.
• Used most often.
• Quotation: uses the author’s EXACT words to
provide one idea.
• Used to put emphasis on the words of the author or when
it is difficult to write the idea equally well in your own words.
Use a Style Guide
• These are standards for formatting your paper and citing
• Three common options: • APA (usually the sciences & social sciences) • MLA (usually the humanities) • Chicago (certain disciplines like History)
What is APA?
• Formatting and referencing style of
the American Psychological Association. Currently 6th Edition. • Handout with essentials in the Writing
• Full manual located in Ryerson
Library, 2nd Floor Reserves at BF76.7.P82 2009 and in the Book store
• Standard legal paper size 8.5” x 11” • Typed at 12 pt. Time New Roman font and double-spaced
• 1” margins on all sides
• Page header and number on all pages
• Page number in top right corner of EVERY page. Title
page starts as “1.”
• Title in top left of EVERY page: • Title page: “Running head: TITLE OF PAPER” • All other pages: “TITLE OF PAPER” • Use the “Page Header” section in Microsoft Word.
Title Page 1/2
• Double-spaced and in the
upper half of the page • Full title (may take two lines) • Writer’s name • Institution name • Do not bold or italicize anything
Title Page 2/2
• Some professors may require additional
information so be sure to follow WHAT YOUR PROFESSOR WANTS
• Professor’s name
• Course name/code/section • etc.
• Not always required, but advised • Page 2 • First line, centered: “Abstract” (plain text) • Do not indent first line • In 150-250 words, detail the important points of the paper
• Should include a concise
summary of the key information
• research topic, questions • participants, methods • results, conclusions
In-text Formatting: The Basics
• Begin your essay on the first line of the page
following the title (or abstract) page
• Type the title at the top centre then continue with
the introduction on the next line
• Remember: everything is...
Citations: Mills, S. (1997). Discourse. New York: Routledge. Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.
Foucault, M. (1978). The History of Sexuality Volume I: An
• United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2008). UNODC
supports UN rights declaration
Morrison, D. R. (1998). Aid and ebb tide: A history of CIDA and Canadian development assistance. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Southern Ontario recreational atlas. (1998). Victoria: Phototype Composing.
Shutte, H. (1972). Transcultural child psychiatry. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 38(9), 229-231.
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