Reference and Citation Examples
Basic guidelines for formatting citations in the text
1. Place the complete citation within parentheses.
2. Use the words in the first part of the citation exactly as they appear in the References so that the source in the text can easily be located in the References. 3. Use the author‘s last name and year for the citation: (Smith, 2008). 4. Place the year in the citation, but do not include the month and day. 5. Use only the last name of the author, and never include the first name or initials except in a personal communication. 6. Use et al. for additional citations of a source with three to five authors: first citation – (Smith, Levy, & Jones, 2008), additional citations – (Smith et al., 2008). 7. Use et al. along with the first author in the citation when a source has more than six authors: (Smith et al., 2008). 8. Place the name of a group author (corporations, organizations, and government agencies) first when no individual author is listed in the source. 9. Use the first two or three words of the title of the work when no author is listed: (Writing Executive Summaries, 2007) or (―Evaluating a Case Study,‖ 2008). Capitalize all major words of the title. 10. Use italics for titles of books, periodicals, movies, television shows, and reports. Use quotation marks for titles of articles, chapters, or web pages. 11. Include the page or paragraph number for a direct quotation: p. or pp. for page numbers, para. for paragraph numbers. You can also use the section heading of the document if needed. It is recommended that you include page or paragraph numbers with your paraphrases. 12. Place any necessary punctuation after the final parenthesis of the citation unless it is a block quotation. 13. Never use a URL address in the citation.
14. Cite your work if you are referencing work from a previous document. Refer to the Self-Plagiarism section of the Plagiarism Guide in CWE‘s Tutorials & Guides. Basic guidelines for formatting the References page
1. Place the references in alphabetical order in one list. (Do not number references or separate them into categories.) 2. Use periods to separate each major element in the reference: Name, A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, 24(4), 13-16. 3. Include the author‘s last name and first and middle initials: Smith, G. Q. (Always use initials instead of authors‘ first/middle names.) 4. Use ellipses between the sixth and final author‘s name when the source has more than eight authors: Smith, G. Q., Levy, J., Jones, B., Arthur, N. S., Banks, E., Adam, C., . . . Arnold, A. 5. Place the year in parentheses after the author‘s name: Smith, G. Q. (2008). If no year is available, put (n.d.) in parentheses. Include the month or season with the copyright for 2
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magazine articles (2010, March) or (2011, Summer). Include the month and day for newspaper articles (2009, May 7). 6. Place the name of a group author (corporations, organizations, and government agencies) first when no individual author is listed in the source. 7. Place the title of a book or article first when no author is listed in the source. 8. Capitalize the following elements of the first title mentioned in the reference: first word, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or a dash. 9. Capitalize all major words of the second title mentioned in the reference (e.g., journal titles, newspaper titles, book titles) 10. Use italics for titles of books, journals, newspapers, movies, television shows, and long reports or studies. 11. Never use quotation marks or italics for article titles. 12. Include a retrieval date only for Internet sources that contain content that can change over time, such as Wikis. 13. Use the DOI number for electronic sources rather than the name of a database: doi:xxxxxx. If the document does not contain a DOI number, use the URL of the publisher‘s home page: Retrieved from...
Citations: In-Text Citation
Sample 1 In the University of Phoenix simulation (2004), students are allowed to apply theory to practice.
Sample 2 A situation providing a dilemma regarding confidentiality allows us to apply theory to practice (University of Phoenix, 2004).
Sample 3 This simulation states, ―The three possible candidates all have strengths and weaknesses for this position‖ (University of Phoenix, 2004).
Sa0mple 1 Exorbitant (2007), as defined in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, has a similar meaning to excessive.
Sample 2 Exorbitant (2007) is defined as ―exceeding the customary or appropriate limits in intensity, quality, amount, or size‖ (p. 439).
Sample 1 In the Iliad, one fighting scene is described in an epic simile that refers to the fighting as tanners playing a tug-of-war with a bull‘s hide (Homer, trans. 1990).
Sample 2 In one section of Homer‘s Iliad (trans. 1990), the fighting is compared to tanners who tug on a bull‘s hide ―stretching hard / till the skin‘s oils go dripping out as the grease sinks in‖ (17:453-454).
Sample 1 According to a PowerPoint presentation in the GEN 380 class (2006), the streets in Toronto are cleaner than the streets in New York.
(G. Smith, personal communication, September 3, 2006).
Sample 2 The United States has succeeded in reaching many of the objectives outlined at the start of the war with Iraq, including the capture of Saddam Hussein (National Security Council, 2007).
Sample 3 According to a PowerPoint presentation from the National Security Council (2007), ―Winning in Iraq will not end the War on Terror, but it will make success in the War on Terror much easier‖ (slide 3).
Sample 1 According to Smith (personal communication, September 3, 2006), pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds.
Sample 2 Pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds (G. R. Smith, personal communication, September 3, 2006.)
Sample 3 Smith stated, ―Pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds‖ (personal communication, September 3, 2006).
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