University of Wollongong Author-Date (Harvard) Referencing Guide 2008
This guide was jointly produced by staff in the University Library, Learning Development and CEDIR The style has been adapted from the publication Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002 (6th edition)
2nd Edition: Updated January 2011
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About this Guide
Accurate referencing is critical to quality academic writing and avoidance of plagiarism. To assist students to develop this important skill, the need for a nominated style – in the absence of an established discipline-specific style – was identified by the University's Academic Senate: That Academic Senate approve the proposal that the University adopt the Harvard Referencing System as the default referencing system to be used in the absence of documented Faculty/Discipline preferred referencing techniques, to be effective from 2004 Academic Senate 2003, Resolution 111/03, Minutes from 19/11/2003, UOW, Wollongong
As the Harvard Referencing System has many variations, the Library, Learning Development and CEDIR have collaborated to produce the UOW Author-Date (Harvard) Referencing Guide. The Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (2002) was used as the basis for tailoring the Guide. Other reputable sources were consulted for consistency, particularly when dealing with resource types not addressed in the Style Manual. Reference entries for additional resource types were developed based upon those included in the Style Manual. It is still not possible to include all variations, particularly as new resources are constantly emerging. At times you will still need to adapt the existing reference type examples to create an appropriate equivalent. Feedback on the guide may be sent to http://uow.libanswers.com/
How to Use this Guide
Remember, the keys to good referencing are 1. Accuracy 2. Consistency – make sure you apply the same principles and conventions through the entire document 3. Verification – make sure there is enough information to help your reader locate the resource If the examples provided do not exactly match the elements of the resource you wish to reference: •
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Look carefully at a similar reference type and use the Format of key elements, together with the examples provided, to construct entries intext and within the reference list If some of the key elements cannot be found, include as much detail as you can
Always check with your lecturer or tutor for clarification, as the accuracy of your referencing is part of the assessment of your work Refer to the Glossary for definitions of resource types, terms used and standard abbreviations
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley, Queensland. Learning Connection 2006, Referencing Using the Harvard Author-Date System, University of South Australia, accessed 23/6/2006, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvardreferencing.pdf 2nd Edition: Updated January 2011
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Reference type ABS/Australian Bureau of Statistics Advertisement Annual Report Archival Material Example of in-text reference See See See Statistics Publication Ephemera: Advertisement Report Example of entry in reference list
Note: For referencing archival material, please see UOW Archives' Guide to Archives and Archival Collections McCaffrey’s thoughts suggest … (NWUA: McCaffrey; D92/5, Notebooks). Wollongong University Archives: Francis McCaffrey; D92, Francis McCaffrey Collection, 1865-1932; D92/5, Notebooks.
Format of key elements Artist’s family name, Initial(s) year of production, Title of Artwork, material, held at location of gallery, museum, etc. Painting Lysistrata 1 (Boyd 1971) illustrates a key image of … Photograph The presentation of Pompeii by Levin (1995) is a (Online) classic … Boyd, A 1971, Lysistrata 1, painting, held at Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. Levin, A 1995,...
Bibliography: A bibliography is a list of references read for preparing a text; it is broader than a reference list in that it includes references cited in a text, and the ones read as background reading. Book A written document - usually comprising papers stapled or bound together. Brochure A short printed work . Browser A software program that enables viewing or navigating pages on the World Wide Web. C c. This is the abbreviation for circa which means about or approximately. cf. This is the abbreviation for confer which means compare.
ch. This is the abbreviation for chapter. Chapter A section or division of a book. cl. cls This is the abbreviation for clause/clauses. Commissioned This is another word for sponsored and can refer to a source paid for, or requested on behalf of an organisation, government department and so on. comp. This is the abbreviation for compiler. Compiler A person who arranges material from a number of sources. Conference paper A document written for/delivered at a conference. Conference proceeding A published record or account of a conference, usually a compilation of conference papers and abstracts. D div. This is the abbreviation for division. E E-book An electronic book that is available to view/read online (via a browser). Some are available through the World Wide Web, others are available through the Library catalogue or databases. ed. eds This is the abbreviation for editor/editors. Edited book A book that has been proofed/edited by an editor/editors, usually comprising a set of chapters. Edition This means a particular version of a text. An edition number is not necessary for a first edition. Editor A person who arranges the written works of others for publication. This may include selection, revision and the inclusion of additional material. edn This is the abbreviation for edition. eduStream A system used to give access (via a browser) to recorded lectures and other learning materials on the Internet. eq. eqs This is the abbreviation for equation/equations. Electronic book A book that is available to view/read online (via a browser). Some are available through the World Wide Web, others are available through the Library catalogue or databases. Encyclopedia A literary work containing extensive information on all branches of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order.
Ephemera Objects not intended to last indefinitely, or produced for a specific occasion, e.g. theatre tickets, pamphlets, photos, flyers, menus, or invitations. E-reading A reading made available through the Library. E-readings may include scanned items prepared by the Library, links to journal articles in a database and links to web pages. et al. This is the abbreviation for et alia. It means “and others”, and is used to record instances in-text when citing more than three authors or more than two editors. F fig. figs This is the abbreviation for figure/figures. Figure The image or representation of something material or immaterial. G Government report A report produced/published/issued by a government department or the Government. Graph A form of symbolic diagram. H Hansard Transcripts of Australian parliamentary proceedings. I ill. ills This is the abbreviation for illustrator/illustration/illustrations. Image A picture or graphic representation. Interview A discussion with a person/people, especially where questions are asked to obtain information. In-text This refers to within the writing or text of a document. J-K Journal Any periodical publication containing information on a range of topics, or a highly specialised topic. Journal article A written piece of work published in a journal. L Lecture notes Notes produced for a lecture. M Manuscript A document that is unpublished. Media release This refers to a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media.
Microform Printed material that has been photographed and transferred to film for preservation (e.g. microfilm, microprint, and microfiche). Minutes of a meeting This refers to formal recordings that reflect discussion and decisions of a formal meeting. Minutes can be confidential or publicly available, in print or online. MS. MSS This is the abbreviation for manuscript/manuscripts. N n. nn. This is the abbreviation for note/notes. n.d. This is the abbreviation for no date no. nos This is the abbreviation for number/numbers. O Online This term is used interchangeably with the word electronic. Originator The creator of a map and may be a cartographer, surveyor or compiler. P-Q p. pp. This is the abbreviation for page/pages. Pamphlet A short document of several pages. para. paras This is the abbreviation for paragraph/paragraphs. Parliamentary Paper Any document tabled before parliament/government. Patent A document conferring some privilege, right, office, title, or property, e.g. often used with new inventions. Periodical A publication that recurs at regular intervals, e.g. a journal. pers. comm. This is the abbreviation for personal communication. Personal communication Information gained through direct contact with another individual, e.g. a telephone conversation, discussion, email, facsimile, interview, letter, or lecture. pl. This is the abbreviation for plate. Podcast A multimedia file distributed over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers.
Preprint A document available either before publishing or as an alternative source to the formally published version. Some documents may not be published in any other form. Press release An official statement offered to newspapers for publication. (See also: Media release). Primary document Refers to firsthand accounts or evidence which may be published (e.g. reports, autobiographies, interviews in contemporary newspapers) or unpublished (e.g. original letters, diaries, papers held within an archive). For further information refer to: ‘What are primary sources’ located at: http://www.library.uow.edu.au/archives/guides/primary.html pt. pts This is the abbreviation for part/parts. R Reference list A reference list includes all the works cited in a text. rev. This is the abbreviation for revised/reviser. S s. ss. sec. secs The abbreviations for section/sections. ser. This is the abbreviation for series. sic This is the abbreviation for thus; often used in-text to notify the reader of an error in the source. Software A series of coded instructions which when fed into a computer will automatically direct its operation in carrying out a specific task, also known as a computer program. Sponsored This is another word for commissioned and can refer to a source paid for, or requested on behalf of an organisation, government department and so on. suppl. This is the abbreviation for supplement. T Table A visual diagram representing information. Thesis A dissertation to maintain and prove an argument – usually a written piece delivered by a candidate for a University degree. trans. This is the abbreviation for translation/translator. Transcript A written copy of something, e.g. a discussion or interview. U Unpublished Work An item not made generally known or accessible, especially in print.
URL This is the abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator – it is commonly known as a web address. It begins with the identification of the host organisation, e.g. www.uow.edu.au for the University of Wollongong. V Video or television recording An audiovisual recording, can be a video/DVD/television recording. vol. vols The abbreviation for volume/volumes. Vodcast A multimedia video file distributed over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. W-Z Weblog A chronological and continually updated publication of comments by contributors that is available on the web. Material posted on a weblog is instantly published. The shortened form of the term is blog. Web page A page available online, usually contains a URL address. Website An online resource which contains a set of web pages arranged in layers or sections. Working paper A draft form of a paper intended for publication in journals, books or conference proceedings.
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