Harvard Referencing Document

Topics: Citation, Reference, Quotation mark Pages: 19 (4011 words) Published: September 8, 2013
UML: Essential Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing

University of Manchester Library – Teaching & Learning
November 2012

CONTENTS

1. 2.

INTRODUCTION (and avoiding plagiarism) ………………………………………….. 3 CITING REFERENCES WITHIN THE TEXT ……………………………………. 4 - 7

3. 4.

CREATING THE LIST OF REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY………………. 8 BOOKS (How to cite and reference) …………………………………………..…… 9 - 10

5.

JOURNAL ARTICLES (How to cite and reference) ………………………..……. 11

6.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (How to cite and reference) ………………………… 12

7.

ONLINE SOURCES (How to cite and reference) ……………………………..…. 13

8.

REPORTS (How to cite and reference) ……………………………………………….. 14

9.

OTHER ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS (How to cite and reference)….... 15

10.

FURTHER READING & SUPPORT …………………………………………………… 16

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1. Introduction

Throughout the course of your studies, you will be expected to support the arguments made in your assignments, through references to other published works. These references can come from many different sources such as academic journals, textbooks, newspaper articles, websites etc. “Citation” is the technical term given to the practice of referring to the work of other authors. It allows you to give due credit to the ideas of others, whilst also providing evidence of the breadth and depth of your own background reading. It also allows those who read your work, to easily identify and locate the references you have provided. This guide provides you with examples of how to correctly cite references within the text of your assignments. It also provides guidance on how to compile an accurate list of references / bibliography. The guide uses the Harvard system of referencing system throughout. The Harvard system does allow for some variations in style (e.g. In your list of references, the title of a book can be italicized or underlined), but you must remain consistent throughout your document. APA referencing is very similar to Harvard and is sometimes considered a Harvard variation. The following guidelines are based upon the conventions provided in “Cite Them Right” by Pears and Shields, a popular citation guide (see page 16 for further details). You should however check with your supervisor that this method of citation is accepted within your School. Subjects such as Law may have additional specific recommendations.

Avoiding plagiarism
Good citation practices are essential in order to avoid any potential charges of plagiarism. The University of Manchester defines plagiarism as “presenting the ideas, work or words of other people without proper, clear and unambiguous acknowledgement”. Plagiarism is considered academic malpractice and as such is treated very seriously by the university. Further details on “Avoiding Plagiarism” are available from the Faculty of Humanities Study Skills website: http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/studyskills/index.html

3

2. Citing references within the text

Citations which you provide in the main body of your writing should only provide brief details of the work you are referring to. These short in-text citations will then link to a fully detailed reference, which will be included in your list of references / bibliography (See section 3 for details on this). You should also check with the person assessing your work whether in-text citations need to be included in your final word count. The way in which you refer to a source within the text of your work will depend upon a number of factors. These include the nature of the sentence/ paragraph being written and the nature / number of authors of the source. Generally however, your citations should follow this format:    Author or editor’s surname, Year of publication, Page numbers (if required): See page 6 for further information on when to include page numbers.

Direct citation:
If the author’s name forms a natural part of your sentence, then the surname should be followed by the year of publication...

Citations: Two or Three authors:
All authors (with publication date) should be noted within your text:  Hirst and Thompson (1999) identify enormous variations between countries in terms of the importance of foreign holdings
If you wish to refer to the works on a single occasion, or if the same point is made by both publications, then refer to both within parentheses.  Mintzberg (1973a, 1973b) summarised eight current schools of thought on the different roles of the manager.
If the original quotation contains errors (e.g. a spelling mistake) do not correct it. Instead point out the errors by writing [sic]  Williams (2008, p. 86) noted that ‘Johnson maid [sic] a mistake’.
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