Albert einstein birth and death

Topics: Citation, Writing, Reference Pages: 12 (2588 words) Published: November 4, 2013
The Harvard Referencing Handbook



Your questions answered:

Why do I have to reference?3
Are there any other basics I should know?3
How does referencing ‘look’ in text?3
How do I know which one to use?5
How often do I have to reference?6

The Conventions of the Harvard system:

How do I reference a book?7
How do I reference an edited book?8
How do I reference an article from a periodical?9
How do I reference a report or study?
(including an online study)10

Finding out more12


This is a step-by-step guide for student use. The referencing system used in criminology, education and sociology is the Harvard system.

Referencing is a basic required skill in any undergraduate programme. You are expected to reference your work accurately and this will be taken into consideration when your work is being assessed.

Referencing in an academic style not only elevates the standard and level of our writing but it also aids our understanding of the subject we are studying. Comprehensive referencing ensures that we avoid sweeping generalisations and enables us to create mature and academic foundations with which to base and build our arguments from. It can allow us to structure our writing in a logical way and it can explain and support our conclusions in order to persuade the reader of its validity.

In order to reference appropriately, you must first understand some of the basic conventions that make up the Harvard system. The practice of referencing is standardised so that a writer’s research is traceable. Consistency and accuracy are therefore extremely important and care must be taken in your written work to ensure that you have got it right.


This guidebook concentrates on the Harvard system, which is the preferred system of referencing in this School.  Some other Principal subjects at Keele use alternative systems of referencing.  Use of these other systems of referencing, if used correctly and consistently, is acceptable in Criminology coursework.

Your Questions Answered

Why do I have to reference?

Referencing gives the necessary credit to the original scholar

It can show that you have read and understood relevant texts

It allows you to differentiate between your own work and that of others It also allows you to structure your work logically and shows that you can distinguish between different theories and ideas

It protects you from plagiarism
It aids revision and future work

Are there any other basics I should know?

This system of referencing is based on the Harvard system.

Be aware that other disciplines may use other systems. See pg. 2.

Whatever is referenced in your work must also be represented in the bibliography and vice versa.

The names used in the text should align with the name featured at the start of the bibliographic detail.

It is possible to reference anything – seek advice if you are having trouble with a particular source

How does referencing ‘look’ in text?

There are different ways to reference in your written work. You can refer to a scholar either directly, indirectly or quote them verbatim. Each way is presented differently but all must include the authors name and year of publication. If you are quoting, you must also include the page number. You may feel that this is also necessary when referring to a very specific piece of information in a text or when quoting from a discipline based dictionary or reference book.

Here are some examples:

Direct Referencing

Direct referencing is when the scholars name is embedded in the sentence. In these instances, the year of publication should come after the surname of the writer in brackets.

Durkheim (1970) suggests that ….

Parsons (1959) discusses the …..

One standpoint, as outlined by Maguire et al (1994) …....

Bibliography: Hearnden, I & Magill, C (2004) Decision-Making by House Burglars: Offenders’ Perspectives. HO Report 249. London: Home Office
Retrieved on 10th Jan 2006 from:
For further Information see:
Redman, P (2006) Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide (3rd Ed) London: Sage Publications
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