The referencing format for all student assignments and research reports is adapted from the American Psychological Association (APA) style. The following items show how various sources of information are referenced in the research reports.
1. Journal article with volume and issue numbers. Underline the journal title and volume number.
Boyle, B. A. (1997). A multi-dimensional perspective on salesperson commitment. Journal of Business& Industrial Marketing, 12(6), 354-367.
Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-227.
2. Book, two authors.
Toller, M., & Fielding, J. (1998). Global business for smaller companies. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.
3. Book, one author.
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. Brochure with corporate author.
BestTemp Staffing Services. (1997). An employer’s guide to staffing services (2nd ed.) [Brochure]. Denver: Author.
Note: when the author and publisher are identical, use the word “Author” as the name of the publisher.
5. Brochure with a writer.
Lawrence, K. S. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. New York: Research and Training Center on Independent Living.
6. Newspaper article, one author.
Standish, E. (1999, January 19). Global market crushes OPEC’s delicate balance of interest. Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A3.
7. Newspaper article, no author:
Buying Asian supplies on the net. (1997, February 12). Los Angeles Times, pp. D3-D4.
8. Company annual report:
Mutual Bank. (1998). Annual report. Kajang, Selangor.
9. Magazine article:
Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
10. Book, component part (Chapter in an edited book):
Kuntz, S. (1998). Moving beyond benefits. In Randolph Jacobson (Ed.), Our changing workforce (pp. 213-227). New York: Citadel Press.
11. Edited book:
Pennathur, A., Leong, F. T., & Schuster, K. (Eds). (1998). Style and substance of thinking. New York: Publishers Paradise.
12. Book, no author or editor:
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfiield, MA; Merriam-Webster.
13. Dissertation or thesis:
Morales, G. H. (1998). The economic pressures on industrialized nations in a global economy. (Doctoral dissertation, University of San Diego, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 5436C-5437C.
Kiren, R. S. (1997). Medical advances and quality of life. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Omaha State University.
Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers’ participation in family work: Consequences for fathers’ stress and father-child relations. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
14. Unpublished paper presented at a meeting or conference:
Myers, C. (1998, August). HMOs in today’s environment. Paper presented at the Conference on Medical Insurance Solutions, Chicago, IL.
15. Proceedings published regularly:
Cynx, J., & Williams, H. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 89, 1372-1375.
16. Unpublished manuscript:
Pringle, P. S. (1991). Training and development in the ‘90s. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Illinois University, Diamondale, IL.
17. Article from a printed magazine, reproduced online:
Norwalk, P. (1999, July 17). Training managers to help employees accept change. Business Line. Retrieved June 17, 2001, from: http://www.busline.com/ news
Note: Do not end a path statement with a period, because any stray punctuation in a path will hinder retrieval.
18. Article from an online magazine, no author listed:
Housing market fueled by rising consumer confidence, low rates. (2003, June 12). Builder...
References: In the text, use such citation as:
McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, 1993) suggests that …
CITING means formally recognizing, within your text, the resources from which you have obtained information.
BIBIOGRAPHY is the list of sources you have used.
REFERENCE is the detailed description of the item from which you have obtained your information.
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