APA STYLE SHEET
By Dr. Abel Scribe PhD
The APA Style Sheet is a concise guide to using the style of the American Psychological Association in writing research papers. It is based on the current fifth edition of the APA Publication Manual. The latest version is at www.docstyles.com. The Style Sheet is routinely updated; it is the product of many contributors. This version was revised in Fall 2004 by Dr. Abel Scribe PhD. Doc Scribe is not affiliated in any way with the APA--this style sheet is free! Freeware Copyright 2004 by Dr. Abel Scribe PhD.
Style Sheet Contents
General Style Notes
• Biased Language
• Compound Words
• Emphasis (Italics-Quotes)
• Punctuation & Lists
• Text Details
• Title & Text pages (graphic)
• Headings & Subheadings
• References & Tables (graphic)
• Tables (notes)
• Text Citations
• Reference Lists
• Anonymous Works
• Books & Chapters
• Conference Papers
• Journal Articles
• Newspapers & Magazines
• Reference Works
• Reports & Papers
• Web Pages
APA style is the style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). The style is documented in the APA Publication Manual (5th ed., 2001). APA style is the widely recognized standard for research writing in psychology and education.
Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. However, this style sheet is no substitute for the 440 page APA Manual, which should be purchased by any serious student of psychology or education. The APA Manual can be found in almost any college bookstore, as well as in many large general-purpose bookstores. The spiral bound edition is especially handy when formatting research papers. The APA Manual draws a distinction between final manuscripts such as class papers, theses, and dissertations, and copy manuscripts to be submitted for review and publication. The APA Style Sheet follows the instructions given in chapter six for "Material Other Than Journal Articles" (APA, 2001, pp. 321-330). Final manuscripts differ from copy manuscripts in these ways:
• Spacing. "Double-spacing is required throughout most of the manuscript. When single-spacing would improve readability, however, it is usually encouraged. Single spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations" (APA, 2001, p. 326).
• Figures, tables, and footnotes. "In a manuscript submitted for publication, figures, tables, and footnotes are placed at the end of the manuscript; in theses and dissertations, such material is frequently incorporated at the appropriate point in text as a convenience to readers" (APA, 2001, p. 325). The most notable additions and changes to fifth edition of the APA Manual (2001) include: • Electronic sources require new formats in references. The formats previously featured on the APA Web site have been superseded. Several formats are included in the Style Sheet. • Italics or underline? "Use the functions of your word-processing program to create italic, bold, or other special fonts or styles following the style guidelines specified in this Publication Manual" (APA, 2001, p. 286). • Hanging indents. "APA publishes references in a hanging indent format. . . . If a hanging indent is difficult to accomplish with your word-processing program, it is permissible to indent your references with paragraph indents" (APA, 2001, p. 299).
Acknowledgements are noted at the end of the Style Sheet. The APA Style Sheet can be freely distributed, but not sold! A good faith effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this document, both by the author and by the many people who have offered suggestions. The APA Style Sheet has benefited greatly from their insight and expertise. The more comprehensive...
Citations: (Beers & Berkow, 1999, chap. 189); (Stephan, 1985).
Citation: (Strunk & White, 1979).
(Original work published 1885)
Citation: (Ebbinghaus, 1885/1913).
Programming; Kinsdale, Ireland, April 3-5, 2002. Berlin: Springer.
Citation: (Shrout et al., 1996). APA references list up to the first six authors to a work. If there are more add et
depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, 1807–1814.
Citation: (Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group, 2002). Cite the full name of a corporate author.
depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial [Electronic version]. JAMA, 287, 1807–1814.
not an exact copy of a print version—“(e.g., the format differs from the print version or page numbers are not
indicated)”—add the date you retrieved the document and the URL to the reference (APA, 2001, p
depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, 1807–1814. Retrieved July 7, 2002,
5(4). Retrieved January 20, 2003, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/kortepeter.htm
Citation: (Kortepeter & Parker, 1999).
paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. and the paragraph number to the citation (e.g., Kortepeter & Parker,
1999, ¶ 17)
from there (e.g., Kortepeter & Parker, 1999, Method section, para. 4).
O 'Neill, G. W. (1992, January). In support of DSM-III [Letter to the editor].
Markoff, J. (1996, June 5). Voluntary rules proposed to help insure privacy for Internet users. New York Times.
Retrieved April 1, 1997, from http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/yo5dat.html
Croatia. (1991). In The new encyclopedia Britannica: Micropaedia. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Middleton, J., & Rassam, A. (Eds.). (1995). Encyclopedia of world cultures: Vol. IX. Africa and the Middle East.
Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting andwriting about people
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