Principles – The Reference List In-text Citations Page and Paragraph Numbers Print Resources Books
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APA REFERENCING SUMMARY
A guide to referencing based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). This summary gives examples of the APA referencing style for a number of commonly used information sources. If you cannot find a model to cite a source, then choose an example that is close to the source you are using, and follow the format provided (APA 2010, p. 193). Otherwise, refer to the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author. If in doubt when citing a paper, err on the side of giving too much information, rather than too little (APA, 2010, p. 193). You should explore using the EndNote software, which you can download for free from the library website. EndNote helps you to cite your sources correctly and to organize your research and notes. Go to: http://libguides.csu.edu.au/ endnote
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Periodicals (Journals, Newspapers, and Magazines in print) Audiovisual Media Electronic Media Basic Principles Online Journal Articles Electronic Books Online Reference Resources CSU Curriculum and Course Materials Technical and Research Reports Conference Papers General Interest Media Websites Secondary Sources Personal Communications and Other Resources
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Some Basic Principles The Reference List
(APA, 2010, p. 180; Perrin, 2012, p. 61, para. 4a. Also APA, 2010, p. 184, para. 6.27; Perrin, 2009, p.88, para. 6b) A reference list is an alphabetically arranged list of sources used in a paper. It starts on a new page immediately after the last page of the paper. The list has the heading References (bold, centred, not in italics, and not underlined). Each item on your list has a hanging indent of 1 cm. See the examples on the following pages. No bullets or numbers. It is helpful to add extra space (8 pts) after each entry. Hint: begin your reference list as you start work on your assignment, adding items as you locate each source. This will save time and energy later. EndNote will help with this. 1. Names of authors appear in the order listed on the title page, not alphabetical order. The names of up to and including seven authors are listed, with all of their names inverted (e.g. Smith, P. G.). An ampersand (&) joins the last two names in the series. 2. If a work has eight or more authors, the first six are listed in full, followed by an ellipsis, and then the last author’s name. An ellipsis ( . . . ) is three periods with a space before each and a space after the last.
(APA, 2010, pp. 174–175, paras. 6.11–6.12; Perrin, 2012, pp. 66–70, para. 4e) Insert citations as you write. If you wait until later, you will be likely to forget the details. 1. When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. 2. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized) and the year. 3. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations. 4. Within a paragraph, you do not need to include the year in subsequent references so long as this does not lead to confusion. e.g.: McLean (2004, p. 32) has shown that the effect of the drought on rural towns . . . McLean also demonstrated . . . . 5. When you use the exact words that an author has used, you must enclose these in inverted commas “. . .” and follow immediately with an in-text citation, including page number.
(APA, 2010, pp. 170–172, paras. 6.03–6.05. APA’s guidance on page numbers is clear: whether quoting an author directly, or paraphrasing, you must credit the source. For direct quotations, the author, year, and page number are given (APA, 2010, p. 170, para....
Citations: Page Numbers
(APA, 2010, pp
See page 2. For six or more authors, cite only the first author, followed by et al. (not italicized, and with a stop after al) for all citations. (Bloggs et al., 2009, p. 23)
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(Burchfield, 1996, p. 707).
(Abrams & Stillinger, 2001, p. 32). Abrams and Stillinger (2001, p. 4) maintain . . . Abrams and Stillinger (2001) suggest “. . .” (p. 57).
(Nicholas, 2004, p
Edition other than the first
(Findlay, 2006, p
Article or chapter in an edited book
(Rospond, 2003) Rospond (2003) writes that “The classic pain pathway consists of a three-neuron chain” (p
(“Fluoxetine Hydrochloride,” 1995, p. 385)
Preface, introduction, foreword, epilogue, or afterword If nonroutine information is important for identification, then provide it in square brackets (APA, 2010, p
(Fuller, 1971, p. xi)
(Waldburg, 1992, p
(Crispin, 1996, p
(Klimosky & Palmer, 1993)
Print article with DOI, two authors
(Charman & Vasey, 2008, p. 196)
Three , four, or five authors
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