APA Style 1
A summary of APA Style
I. FORMATTING MANUSCRIPT
1. Margins: Leave at least one inch (2.5 cm) on all sides.
2. Justification: Left-justify the document, leaving the right margin ragged. 3. Typeface: Use a serif typeface such as 10 to 12-point Times New Roman, Palatino, Courier, or VNI-Times 4. Line Spacing: Double-space the entire paper including quotations, reference list, author identification notes, content footnotes, figure captions, and all parts of tables. Long papers may use 1.5 spacing.
5. Page Headers and Page Numbers: A page header consists of the first two or three words of the title and serves as identification in case pages are separated. Place the page header and the page number in the upper right corner of the page, e.g. Application Results 1 6. Paragraph Indentation: Indent the first line of each paragraph five to seven spaces (or half an inch). The remaining text of the essay should be left-justified. 7. Long quotations (block quotes):
Place direct quotations longer than 2 lines in a free-standing block of typewritten lines. Omit quotation marks. Block quotations are often introduced with a colon (:). Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces (or ½ inch) from the left margin without the usual opening paragraph indent. Example:
… Jones's 1993 study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) 8. Headings
APA headings follow a hierarchy.
Using different levels of heading helps reveal the organization of the paper. => Levels of heading
CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Flush left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period. Example:
APA Style 2
AN INTERVIEW VALIDATION STUDY
Sample and Procedures
Participants and interview sheets.
- Do not precede headings with numbers (I, II, 1, 2,…) or letters (A, B, a, b,…). - Level 4 ends with a period although it might not be a complete sentence. => Choice of levels of heading
Few papers require all 5 levels of heading. Three-level heading is the most common. - One level (for a short article) use level 1
- Two levels
use level 1 & level 3 (or level 4)
- Three levels
use level 1, level 3, and level 4
- Four levels
use level 1, level 2, level 3, and level 4
II. WRITING PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS
As Shrensky (1995) has noted in an earlier paper, poodles can be taught to sing (p. 25). Shrensky (1995) demonstrates that poodles can be taught to sing (p. 25). Miniature poodles can be taught to sing (Shrensky, 1995, p. 25). Shrensky (1995) alleges/claims that poodles can sing (p. 25). According to Wilson and Collins (1999), Shrensky's study is nonsense (p. 50). Wilson and Collins (1999) say that Shrensky's study is nonsense (p. 50).
III. WRITING REFERENCES
Here are approved abbreviations for use in a reference list:
APA Style 3
chap. for chapter
ed. for edition
rev. ed. for revised edition
2nd ed. for second edition
Ed. for Edited by
(Eds.) for multiple editors
Trans. for Translated by
p. for page number, with a space after the
pp. for page numbers (plural)
Vol. for a specific Volume
vols. for a work with xx volumes
No. for Number
Pt. for Part
Suppl. for Supplement,
Tech. Rep. for Technical Report
n.d. for no date
n.p. for no page
1. Book, one author
Chitty, D. (1996). Do lemmings commit suicide? Beautiful hypotheses and ugly facts....
As Shrensky (1995) has noted in an earlier paper, poodles can be taught to sing (p
Shrensky (1995) demonstrates that poodles can be taught to sing (p. 25).
Miniature poodles can be taught to sing (Shrensky, 1995, p. 25).
Shrensky (1995) alleges/claims that poodles can sing (p. 25).
According to Wilson and Collins (1999), Shrensky 's study is nonsense (p. 50).
Wilson and Collins (1999) say that Shrensky 's study is nonsense (p. 50).
… (Chitty, 1996, p.28).
Chitty (1996) claimed that sources of facts about lemmings are
York: Oxford University Press.
2. Book, two authors
…(Rosellini & Worden, 1997, pp
… As Rosellini and Worden (1997) suggested…
Rosellini, G., & Worden, M
Colomb, & Williams, 1995).
(Booth et al., 1995).
4. Book, more than 6 authors
… (Jones et al., 2000).
As Jones et al. (2000) demonstrated, …
Jones, J.J, Wilson, K.M., Carr, K.L., Clark, J.F., Hudson, L.R., Jacobs, R.D., et al
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