How to cite references within the text of an assignment
Use the author-date method of citation for quotations (exact words of another author) and paraphrasing (summarising the words and ideas of one or more authors). Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing is when you summarise the ideas, concepts or words from the work or one or more authors. Please note: changing only a few words from another author does not constitute paraphrasing. Type
If you are referring to the general theme of a book or article Brown (1991) investigated the effects of ...
An investigation into the effects of maternal age
(Brown, 1991) found that ...
When to include page numbers
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea in another work, page or paragraph numbers are not required. But it can be helpful, for example when paraphrasing or referring to information or an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting or referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long and page numbers might be useful for the reader. Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little
water (Kozeny, 1988, pp. 223-224).
Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well
tip contributed little.
When the authors of a source are not part of the formal sentence structure Both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons. Reviews of research on sport and reading have concluded
that at least some types of reading behaviours are related to higher levels of physical health (Austin, 1990; McGovern &
Henderson, 2001; Wright & Morgan, 2001).
When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal sentence structure The year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Wright and Mander (2002) found that although there was a
reduction in literacy, the difference was not statistically significant. Group authors and abbreviations
The names of groups are usually spelled out each time they appear in text. (University of Southern Queensland, 2009)
University of Southern Queensland (2009)
Only abbreviate if the name is long, cumbersome and the abbreviation is familiar or easily understood. First citation in text.
(Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees [UNHCR], 2008)
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR, 2008)
One or two authors
Cite the names every time the reference occurs:
Smythe and Jones (2001) found ... (first and subsequent
... as has been shown (Smythe & Jones, 2001).
More than two authors
For three, four or five authors, cite all authors in the first instance, thereafter, only first author followed by "et al." (not underlined and with no stop after "et") and the year of publication. Campbell, Brady, Bradley, and Smithson (1991)
found ... (first citation)
Campbell et al. (1991) found ... (subsequent citations)
For with six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by "et al." and the year. In the list of references give all names up to and including six authors. "and" or "&"?
In running text use "and" to join the names of multiple authors, but use an ampersand (&) inside parentheses. Jones and Brady (1991) continued to find ...
The authors found the same result in the second and
third trials (Jones & Brady, 1991).
Citing multiple works by the same author at the same time
Arrange dates in order (oldest to newest). Use suffixes after the year when there are multiple publications from the same year. If the publication dates are same, the suffixes are assigned in the reference list where these kinds of references are ordered in alphabetical order by title (article, chapter or complete work). Several studies (Jackson, 1999, 2001a, 2001b, 2005)
revealed a similar outcome.
Primary authors with the same surname
Include the first author's initials in all text citations...
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