APA Style Of Documentation

Topics: Citation, Reference, Bibliography Pages: 9 (1958 words) Published: November 9, 2014
APA – American Psychology Association- Style of Documentation Helpful hints on how to use it. APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires two elements for citing outside sources. These are the Reference Citation in Text and the Reference List. Together these elements identify and credit the sources consulted in the paper and allow others to access or retrieve this material.

Reference Citations in Text
In APA style, citations to sources are placed in the text of the paper in order to briefly identify sources for readers and enable them to locate the source of the cited information in the Reference List. These parenthetical (in text) references include the author's last name and the year of publication enclosed in parentheses. For example, White (2004) states that all human cells release waste. Citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.

Examples:
Works by a Single Author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative cite only missing information in parentheses. Simon (1945) posited that
In 1945 Simon posited that
 

Works by Multiple Authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."
as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman, Knetsch, & Thaler (1991) found
In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found
 
Works by Associations, Corporations, Government Agencies, etc. The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)

When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty. (NIMH, 2007)

 
Works with No Author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Guide to agricultural meteorological practices (1981)

Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article or chapter of a book, or italicize it if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report. on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date. on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)
Specific Parts of a Source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation. (Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)
De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218). If page numbers are not included in electronic sources, provide the paragraph number preceded by the paragraph symbol or the heading and following paragraph. (Mönnich & Spiering, 2008 ¶ 9)

 
Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and...

Citations: from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative cite only missing information in parentheses.
Simon (1945) posited that
In 1945 Simon posited that
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)
In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."
as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
Kahneman, Knetsch, & Thaler (1991) found
In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.
Kahneman et al. (1991) found
 
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)
When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations
(NIMH, 2007)
 
Guide to agricultural meteorological practices (1981)
Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article or chapter of a book, or italicize it if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)
Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)
Specific Parts of a Source
(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)
De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ..
(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008 ¶ 9)
 
Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3), 182–196.
 
As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.
 
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
 
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hammond, K. R. & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.) Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York: Grove.
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