Chicago Citation Style
Last Updated: February 2012
UBC Okanagan Library
What is Chicago Style?
The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed) provides two distinct citation styles: Humanities style (notes and bibliography) and Scientific/Social Sciences styles (parenthetical author/date references and reference list). This handout covers only the Humanities style of Chicago. The manual is available in the library at: Z 253.U69 2010. General Rules
When to Cite?: You need to cite all sources that you have consulted, even if you present the ideas from these sources in your own words. “Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked…The primary criterion of any source citation is sufficient information to lead readers directly to the sources consulted…whether these are published or unpublished, in printed or electronic form.” (14.1)
Citation Appears in Two Places: Chicago requires that you cite sources consulted in the body of your paper (“in-text citations” or footnotes/endnotes) and in the bibliography. (14.2) If the bibliography includes all of the works cited in the notes, then the notes can be formatted in the short form, even for the first citation (14.14, 14.18). Note that discipline/professor preferences may vary and you should consult your professor with questions.
Spacing: Double-space the body of the paper. Single space footnotes/endnotes and bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
Page Numbers: Every page of your paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Use Arabic numerals centered or on the far right at the top of the page.
Page Number Ranges: For all numbers less than 100, use all digits (Ex. 3-10; 71-71; 96-117). For 100 or multiples of 100, use all digits (Ex. 100-104; 1100-1113). For numbers 101-109/ 201-209, use the changed part of the number only (Ex. 101-8; 808-33). For numbers 110-199, 210-299, use two digits unless more are needed to include all changed parts (Ex. 321-28; 498-532; 11564-615). (9.60)
Spelling: Chicago recommends Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (PE 1625.W36 1993) and the abridged Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (PE 1628.M36 2003). (7.1)
Italics: Titles of books and journals in the body of the paper should be written in italics. (14.94; 14.177)
Capitalization: Capitalize all significant words of a title and subtitle regardless of how they appear in your source.
Publisher Location: When more than one place of publication is listed, document the first one that appears on the title page. (14.135)
Block Quotes: Chicago does not provide a specific word count guideline. Long quotes or entire paragraphs should be quoted in single-spaced, indented blocks of text. (13.20-13.22)
Title page: include the title, author and date. Do not include page numbers or running head. Consult your professor regarding their preference for the inclusion of course number, professor name, and other details.
In-text Citations: Footnotes & Endnotes (14.38-14.43 / p. 671-676)
Wherever you incorporate another person’s words, facts, or ideas, insert a footnote or endnote.
Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page within your paper.
Endnotes are numbered citations listed on a separate page at the end of the research paper (before the bibliography and/or any appendices).
Single space within footnotes and endnotes, double space between entries. Indent the first line of the note (tab once to indent; a tab is 1 inch). In-text Example:
Jones states “‘genocide’ is one of the most powerful words in the English language.”1
If the bibliography includes all of the works cited in the notes, then the notes can be formatted in the short form, even for the first citation. (14.14,...
Citations: 31. Jan Gattrell, e-mail message to author, June 21, 2011.
32. Peggy Olive, “Is There a Cancer Threat from the Oil Sands Industry?,” Suzuki Elders
(blog), April 19, 2011, http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/suzuki-elders/
33. Jim Robinson, “Power Point Presentation for September 30, 2011,” PHIL 221 Connect
Course Web site at UBC Okanagan, accessed November 26, 2011, http://connect.ubc.ca.
site at UBC Okanagan. Accessed November 26, 2011. http://connect.ubc.ca.
New York: Springer, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9467-7.
“Fallacies of Hope.” Civilization. Directed by Michael Gill, narrated by Kenneth Clark. London: BBC, 1996.
Jones, Adam. Crimes Against Humanity: A Beginner’s Guide. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2008.
—. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. London: Routledge, 2006. http://www.myilibrary.com?id=54893.
Olive, Peggy. “Is There a Cancer Threat from the Oil Sands Industry?” Suzuki Elders (blog). April 19, 2011.
Quarterly 28, no. 7 (2007): 1327-42. doi:10.1080/01436590701591838.
Zukofsky, Louis. “Sincerity and Objectification.” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello,
Marianne More: Imaginary Possessions
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