Chicago Citation Style:
Footnotes and Bibliography
Last updated: September 10, 2010
The Politics Department has adopted the Chicago citation format for footnotes in academic papers. The Chicago citation style is the method established by the University of Chicago Press for documenting sources used in a research paper and is probably the most commonly used footnote format. Below are instructions for using footnotes to cite most of the sources encountered in undergraduate research. It is a good idea to read through these instructions before beginning to write your paper. Please note that footnotes are so-named because they appear at the bottom of the page that contains the text you are annotating. Endnotes follow the same citation style, but are listed together at the end of the paper before the bibliography. Only use endnotes at the specific request of the instructor; use footnotes otherwise. For additional information or for instructions on proper citing of sources not covered below, please see one of these books, or a more recent edition:
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003.
Hacker, Diana. A Pocket Style Manual. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.
Or, for an online version:
Or this document on the Ohio State University library website: http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/chicagogd.php
Your footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper. Use your word processing program to insert footnotes and it will number them for you automatically. The footnote number should always be inserted after the punctuation.1 The first time you cite a source, you will include a full citation. For all subsequent references to that text, your footnote citation will be in abbreviated form. (More detail below.)
Cite authors’ names as they appear in the texts. Don’t replace first names with initials unless the names appear this way on the title page of the source. If no author is listed, organize the entry by the title.
Books: Single Author
x. Author’s first name Last name, Title in Italics and in Headline Style (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number if relevant.
Subsequent references to the same text:
x. Last name, Title in Shortened Form, page number.
Note: If your second reference to a text comes immediately after the first, use “Ibid.” in place of the author’s name and the book title. Include the page number if it is different from that listed in the first reference.
1. Kent Portney, Taking Sustainable Cities Seriously (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003). 2. Ibid., 162.
3. David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change (New York: Blackwell, 1989), 197.
4. Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2003).
5. Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, 86-87.
Note: The second, third and fifth footnotes above cite direct quotes or material found on one or more specific pages, therefore the page numbers of the source are included.
Author’s last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
Harvey, David. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change. New York: Blackwell, 1989.
Portney, Kent. Taking Sustainable Cities Seriously. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2003. Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2003.
Books: Multiple Authors
For two or three authors, list each of the authors in the order presented on the title page of the book. For more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “and others” or “et al.”:
x. First name Last name and First name Last Name,...
References: U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Hearings. 1946, 79th
Cong., 1st and 2nd sess., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. A Profile of the Working Poor, 2001. 2003, Report
968, Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service. 1978 Statistics of Income, Individual Income
Tax Returns. 1981, Pub. 79 (3-81), Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
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