Citation and Reference List

Topics: Citation, Bibliography, Parenthetical referencing Pages: 23 (7845 words) Published: January 7, 2013
I am sorry to be burdening you with tasks this Christmas season. Sayang kasi yung araw eh… It would not take too much of your time naman… Tasks for this vacation:
The second chapter of your study is entitled “Review of Related Literature and Studies”. This means that references are needed for this section. This section is divided into five parts: (1) Foreign Literature, (2) Local Literature, (3) Foreign Studies, and (4) Local Studies. Here’s what you need to do:

(1) Foreign Literature- Look for at least TWO references that are related to your study or topic. They should be written by foreign authors. These can be an internet article or paragraphs from books, magazines like ‘Reader’s Digest’, newspaper articles, speech, etc. 2) Local Literature – Same as Foreign Literature. It’s just that they are written by Filipino authors. At least TWO. (3) Foreign Studies - Look for at least TWO studies/thesis that are related to your topic. They should be written by foreign authors. They can be found in research journals. They can also be already-published studies. In many cases, related studies can be in PDF. You may just download them and copy a part you think are related to your study. Also, you may go to a library and look for theses or studies related to your topic. Photocopy the abstract or the Chapter 5 of that study then that would be okay. (4) Local Studies - Same as Foreign Studies. It’s just that they are written by Filipino authors. At least TWO. VERY IMPORTANT: DO NOT FORGET TO MAKE A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE ONES YOU RESEARCHED AND WILL BE USING AS A REFERENCE. IF IT COMES FROM THE NET, COPY THE URL AND THE AUTHOR. IF IT COMES FROM A BOOK, GET THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR/S, PUBLICATION PLACE, PUBLICATION YEAR, AND NAME OF PUBLISHER. IF COMES FROM A JOURNAL, GET THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR/S, PUBLICATION PLACE, PUBLICATION YEAR, NAME OF PUBLISHER, VOLUME NUMBER, ISSUE NUMBER, AND PAGE NUMBER/S. Attached herewith are the ways on how to make an APA documentation. Intro: The issue of plagiarism has pushed people not only in the field of research to seriously take into consideration the importance of citation. Ethically speaking, plagiarism is a criminal act and you are restricted by rules, either you are aware of them or you are not aware of them. Even if you are not aware of the rules of plagiarism, still you can suffer at the end. The necessity of time is that the plagiarism awareness should be enhanced in the society and plagiarism tutorials should be promoted. That is why there is a great deal of need for CITATION.

Citation Defined
Citation is one of the major requirements of all of the research papers written and all of the intellectual work, no matter whatever the field you are in. Basically, citation is the way of telling the readers about the sources you have utilized in that specific work. (In this way if your reader wants to get the further information on the related topic or the findings of the other author, he can easily get the information on that. In most of the cases the reference of the material includes the title of the source, author name, name of publishers, the date of publishing, and also the link of the website where the material was published.) Importance of Citation

Citation is very important for the readers who have the keen interest in getting more and more information about the related topics. There is a variety of information available on the Internet and many people only download the authentic information. Therefore, in order to provide information to such people, citation is very important.

Citation also shows the efforts you made in the research and it also exhibit the originality of your research without any plagiarism. Citation gives an external support to your ideas and also increases your arguments strength.

The APA Citation
The following format was released via by the OWL at Purdue ( APA (American...

Citations: Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author 's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).
Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author 's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
Authors with the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list
Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...
(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Kenneth (2000) explained...
According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).
Web page
The cabin at the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site is designed to be "symbolic of the one in which Lincoln was born" (National Park Service, 2003, para
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
Unknown Author
Merriam-Webster 's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993)
Berndt, T. J. (1981).
Berndt, T. J. (1999).
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends ' influence on students ' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends ' influence on adolescents ' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 629-654.
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.
Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.
Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.
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