Harvad Referencing

Topics: Citation, Reference, Bibliography Pages: 7 (1696 words) Published: November 28, 2011
Page numbers should be included when there is a need to be more specific, for example when making a direct quotation: egAs Kelvin stated (1968, p.100) ‘the value of…’

If referencing a secondary source (a document which you have not seen but which is quoted in one of your references) the two items must be linked with the term ‘cited in’: eg…economic development (Jones, 2000) cited in Walker (2001). NB (1) Whenever possible, try to read the original source; (2) some guides to Harvard advise that you can only cite the secondary source - eg …according to Jones as cited by Walker (2001).

Short quotations may be run into the text, using single quotation marks (see Kelvin example above) Longer quotations should be separated from the rest of the text by means of indentation and optional size reduction, and do not need quotation marks: egSimone de Beauvoir (1972, p.365) examined her own past and wrote rather gloomily:

The past is not a peaceful landscape lying there behind me, a country in which I can stroll wherever I please, and will gradually show me all its secret hills and dates. As I was moving forward, so it was crumbling.

2. Arranging references in the bibliography

References are arranged alphabetically by author’s name (or title, if no author) which has been used in the body of the text.

a. Book references
Include, where possible, the following information in the order listed here:

Surname first, followed by first name(s) or initials (be consistent). Include all names if there are 2 or 3 authors; if more than 3, use the first name and then et al. For editors, compilers or translators (instead of author), give the abbreviation ed/eds, comp/comps or trans following the name(s): egPeckham, T. and Smith, G. (eds.)

Year of publication
If date not known, use: n.d. If the date is ascertainable but not printed in the document, give in brackets, adding a question mark if the date is uncertain. eg(1996) or (1996?)

Capitalise the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns. Use bold, italics or underline (be consistent)
Include any sub-title, separating it from the title by a colon.

Edition Only include if not the first edition.

Series Include if relevant.

Place of publication and publisher
Use a colon to separate these elements. If not given use: s.l. (no place) and s.n. (no publisher).

Page numbers
Include if referring to a specific quotation etc.

Examples of book references:
eg Gombrich, E. H. (1977). Art and illusion. 5th ed. London: Phaidon. eg Ridley, A., Peckham, M. and Clark, P. (eds.) (2003). Cell motility: from molecules to organisms. Chichester: Wiley.

eg Royal Society (2001). The future of sites of special scientific interest (SSSIs). London: Royal Society.

b. Section/Chapter in book edited by another
The explanatory notes given in Section 2a, for books, are still relevant, but additional elements of information are also required, so:

Author(s) of section
Year of publication
Title of section (use normal type) followed by In:
Author/Editor of whole book
Title of whole book (use bold, italics or underlined – as for complete books) Editor
Place of publication and publisher
Page numbers of section
eg Smith, H. (1990). Innovation at large. In: James, S., (ed.) Science and innovation. Manchester: Novon, pp. 46-50.

c. Journal references NB: Please see Section 3 for citing electronic journals Explanatory notes given on page 2, for books, are relevant. The elements of information required are: Author(s)

Year of publication
Title of article (use normal type)
Title of journal (use bold, italics or underlined – as for complete books) Volume number
Issue number and/or date
Page numbers

References: Li, X. and Crane, N. (1996). Electronic styles: a handbook for citing electronic information. 2nd ed. Medford, N.J.: Information Today.
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2005). Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.
University of Chicago Press (2003). The Chicago manual of style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is given:
eg This concept is discussed by Jones (1998) …
When referring to more than one document by an author published in the same year, these are distinguished by adding lower case letters (a,b,c) after the year:
eg (Watson, 1999a)
If there are 2 authors, the names of both should be given:
eg (Lines and Walker, 1997)
Where there are more than 2 authors, cite the first author, followed by ‘et al’ (in italics)
eg (Morgan et al., 1998)
If the author is unascertainable, cite (a shortened) title:
eg (Burden of anonymity, 1948)
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