32 Harvard Referencing 2006
Note: this page is only an introduction to the Harvard referencing system. Curtin Library & Information Service provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual: For authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, n.p. For referencing electronic sources, refer to the American Psychological Association's Publication manual: American Psychological Association 2001, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC. Note: A modified APA style is used for electronic sources to fit in with the Harvard referencing style provided by Curtin Library & Information Service as the Style manual does not cover this area fully. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above publications. It is very important that you check your department or school's assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements. What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the Harvard referencing style. Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date. A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below).
In-Text Citations Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation i.e. (Hamilton, CL 1994) or CL Hamilton (1994). If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon e.g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003). They are presented alphabetically by author. When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given and quotation marks placed around the quote. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text, include the relevant page number, as this might be useful to the reader. In general, page numbers should be included in all in-text citations, as many schools insist on this practice. How to Create a Reference List A reference list only includes books, articles etc that are cited in the text. A bibliography is a list containing the sources used in developing a...
Citations: (Madden & Hogan 1997, p. 45) OR Madden and Hogan (1997, p. 45) discuss this idea…
Madden, R & Hogan, T 1997, The definition of disability in Australia: moving towards national consistency, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.
(Leeder et al. 1996, p. 69)
Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Mathews, PS, Williams, DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.
‘This was apparently not the case before about 1995’ (Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, p. 14)… OR ‘In Advertising in the Western Cape (1990, p. 14) it was claimed that…’
Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, ABC Publishers, Cape Town.
‘University research (Brown 1982, 1988) has indicated that…’
Brown, P 1982, Corals in the Capricorn group, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton
‘In recent reports (Napier 1993a, 1993b)…’ Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year.
Renton (2004, p. 5) suggests that…
Renton, N 2004, Compendium of good writing, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton
The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980, p. 85) defined it as... As discussed by Blaxter (1976, p. 101)…
Sadie, S (ed.) 1980, The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, 6th edn, Macmillan, London
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