Creating Your Reference List
& Bibliography Using Harvard
What, Why, How, When &
This guide to using the Harvard system of referencing complies with: BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. 1990. BS5605 :1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. 2nd ed. London: BSI and BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. 2010. BS ISO 690:2010. Information and documentation : guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. London: BSI
The use of the Harvard system of referencing has been accepted as University of Wales, Newport policy. The policy, originally accepted by Academic Board in 28 November 1996, was re-approved at the June 2002 and November 2002 meetings of the Board. The policy states that all undergraduates, postgraduates and staff should use the Harvard referencing system. University of Wales, Newport supports the bibliographic management tool RefWorks™ an online bibliography and database manager that allows users to create their own personal bibliography.
1. What, Why, How, Where & When
1.1 What is a reference?
When writing an assignment, essay or dissertation, you will be expected to acknowledge the materials you have used to write the piece and support your arguments like books, journals or newspaper articles, webpages etc. This list of books, journals, newspaper articles or webpages is known as the list of references or bibliography.
1.2 Why reference?
Unless you are doing creative writing, you will normally be required to research materials and use these sources from books, journals, videos, webpages etc. as evidence in backing up your argument. Therefore, referencing, or letting the reader know the source of your information, is a necessary and important part of academic writing. It is vital to acknowledge all the ideas, arguments and quotations used in your assignment to avoid any accusations of plagiarism. Plagiarism is stealing other people’s words/phrases and/or ideas either blatantly by not referencing, or less blatantly (but just as seriously) by referencing but 'passing off' the words/phrases you have submitted as 'yours' when it is really the words/phrases of another person.
JISC Plagiarism Detection Service
One way of enabling lecturers to check whether students have referenced their assignments correctly is the use of the electronic Plagiarism Detection Service. This allows your work to be checked against electronic sources of information. The intention is that cheating can be identified, for the benefit of all of the students on the course.
1.3 How do you reference?
There are a number of different methods of citing and listing your references or bibliography, but the accepted method of referencing used at University of Wales, Newport is the Harvard System of referencing.
1.4 Where do you reference?
Both references to sources acknowledged in the text and those works which have been of value (for example, for background reading) but which have not been specifically referred to in the text must be acknowledged in the bibliography.
1.5 When do you reference?
You should reference others’ work whenever you draw on it for inspiration, use it as support for a theory or argument, or use it for particular examples.
Whether you are writing a thesis, a dissertation, an essay or just making notes on your own reading, you should always record sufficient detail to identify the book, article or image which you have used for a bibliography or references section later.
Write down your references or save into RefWorks™ (see below) when you find the book, illustration, etc. It may be difficult to find the information at a later stage. This is especially important for items borrowed from another library or if you are doing research away from your home base. If you photocopy any items, ensure that you add the full reference at the time you copy. It is almost impossible to identify the item later.
If you need...
References: Where there are 3 or more authors use et al in the text e.g. (Thomas et al. 2011) but in the
references section/bibliography name all three, e.g
RABIGER, M. 2009. Directing the documentary. 5th ed. London: Focal.
SURMAN, D. 2006. Style, consistence and plausibility in the Fable gameworld. In: BUCHAN, S.
SAATCHI GALLERY. 2009. Shape of things to come : new sculpture. [exhibition catalogue].
ROGERS, T. 2005. Measuring value added in higher education: Do any of the recent
experiences in secondary education in the United Kingdom suggest a way forward?
SUGDEN, J. 2008. Thousands of students worse off after error leads to a cut in university grants.
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