Harvard Referencing Guide
There are many different Author-Date referencing styles (see the Referencing Comparison Sheet for one other). This guide is based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers. Harvard referencing style uses references in two places in a piece of writing: in the text and in a reference list at the end. In general, each name that appears in the text must also appear in the reference list, and every work in the reference list must also be referred to in the main text. (There are some rare exceptions to this rule which are given in the following guide.) All the details of the reference are important, including the full stops and commas. In-text references in Harvard style should give the author’s family name and the year of the work’s publication; if you quote or paraphrase, you should also give a page number.
Here is a generic example, as it would appear in a reference list, for a journal article with three authors:
Author,˰AA,˰Author,˰B˰&˰Author,˰C˰YEAR,˰'Article title in between single quotes, in lower case and with no full stop to end',˰Journal Title in Italics with Capitals,˰vol.˰##,˰no.˰#,˰pp.˰##-##. Note: ˰ represents a space.
In the text, it would look like this: It has been claimed that . . . (Author, Author & Author YEAR, p. #). It could also look like this: Author, Author and Author (YEAR, p. #) claim that . . . Note: in the first in-text example the & sign is used; this is because the names are in brackets. In the second example, the word ‘and’ is used; this is because the names are part of the sentence and only the year and page number are in brackets.
In the examples which follow, no page numbers are given for the in-text examples. However, remember that you will need to include a page number if you quote or paraphrase. If you are referring only to one page, use the abbreviation p. If you are referring to more than one page, use the abbreviation pp.
Journal article from a database
(Palmer & Devitt 2008)
(English project 2010)
Lecture notes given online
Hampson, KD 1996, 'Exporting educational services: an Australian university's experience in delivering offshore project management programs', Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61-66, viewed 7 July 2004, .
Palmer, EJ & Devitt, PG 2008, 'Limitations of student-driven formative assessment in a clinical clerkship. A randomised controlled trial', BMC Medical Education, vol.8, viewed 12 October 2010, (electronic PubMed Central).
English Project 2010, English project learning zone, The English Project, viewed 21 January 2011, .
Cole, P 2010, 'Part 5: advanced electromagnetic theory', lecture notes in the topic 7052 Electromagnetic theory and RFID applications, University of Adelaide, viewed 14 December 2010,
Level 3 East, Hub Central, North Terrace campus, The University of Adelaide SA 5005 Australia T: +61 8 8313 5771 | E: firstname.lastname@example.org | W: www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/
Harvard Referencing Guide
Bergmann, L 2011, ‘The active voice versus the passive voice’, Grammar Gang blog, 5 July, viewed 27 July 2011, .
Conference paper – online edited proceedings
(Crisp, G, Hillier, M & Joarder, S
Crisp, G, Hillier, M & Joarder, S 2010, ‘Assessing students in Second Life – 2010)
some options’, in CH Steel, MJ Keppell, P Gerbic, & S Housego (eds), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of the 27th Annual ASCILITE Conference: Curriculum, technology and transformation for an unknown future, Sydney, pp. 256–261, viewed 15 July 2011, .
Newspaper article viewed online
Salopek, P 1998, 'Basically, we are all the same: controversial genetic quest is unlocking secrets of the human behavior', Chicago Tribune, viewed 7 July 2004, .
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