Harvard Referencing System
Tunku Abdul Rahman College
Compiled by Dr Chook Ka Joo Quality Assurance Department Tunku Abdul Rahman College and Mr Johnny Chin Fui Chung School of Social Science and Humanities Tunku Abdul Rahman College 2010 For internal circulation only. ©Tunku Abdul Rahman College. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES REFERENCING SYSTEM THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM CITATION IN THE TEXT THE REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING
1 1 1 2 2 6 9
TAR College Harvard Referencing System
TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM 1.0 INTRODUCTION Referencing or citing means acknowledging the source of information and ideas you have used in your assignments (e.g. essay, report, project, research paper, etc.). This is a standard practice at all institutions of higher learning including Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) College. This learning guide on Harvard referencing system was developed based on the following references: Curtin University Library 2007, Harvard Referencing. Fisher, D & Hanstock, T 1998, Citing References. Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2005, Research Methods for Business Students. University of Bournemouth 2005, Citing References. University of South Australia 2006, Referencing using the Harvard author–date system. 2.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES The following are reasons why referencing is needed: to acknowledge debts to other writers to demonstrate the body/scope of knowledge upon which your research is based on to enable all those who read your work to locate the sources easily More importantly, by using appropriate references, you will show the breadth and quality of your assignments and avoid plagiarism. For further details on plagiarism, please refer to the TAR College guide on Avoiding Plagiarism. 3.0 REFERENCING SYSTEM The two most common types of referencing systems used are: i. Author‐date system such as the Harvard referencing system, American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system and Modern Language Association (MLA) referencing system ii. Numerical system such as the Chicago or Turabian, Vancouver and footnote. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 1
The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard referencing system for all of the Schools except the School of Social Science and Humanities, which is using the APA referencing system. 4.0 THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM In the Harvard referencing system, cited publications are referred to as citation in the text by giving the author’s family name and the year of publication, and the details are listed in the reference list at the end of the text/work (see page 9 for examples). The process of citing references consists of two inter‐related parts: i. Citing ‐ the way a writer refers from the text to the sources used in the assignment. ii. Referencing ‐ the process of creating a reference list of each source a writer has used in writing the assignment. All statements, opinions, conclusion, etc. taken from another writer’s work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised. 5.0 CITATION IN THE TEXT When writing a piece of work, you will need to refer to materials written or produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. The system that you have used to cite the sources must be consistent and accurate to enable readers to identify and locate the materials to which you have referred to. ...
Khoo (1977, p. 45) argues that… Two or three authors
Four or more authors
As suggested by Sandler et al. (1995, Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ & Hoffere, PB 1995, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, Williams & Wilkins, p. 14) … Baltimore.
The industry… (Leeders et al. 1996)
Journal Single author Two or three authors
An example of citation in the text Ho (2007, p. 2) argues tha …
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