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Topics: Citation, Reference, Oxford Pages: 24 (5801 words) Published: August 16, 2013
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Westminster Institute of Education

How to reference
Harvard referencing for Westminster Institute students
Kate Williams Jane Spiro Nick Swarbrick

www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/education

How to reference
2

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Introduction
Students often say that lecturers give conflicting advice on how to reference assignments, and have asked for clearer and more consistent guidelines. This guide explains how to use the Harvard (author/date) referencing style. This style is used by most courses and programmes in WIE, but not all. Check the style used on each module from your Module Handbook, or Module Leader. While individual lecturers may have their preferences for how Harvard references should be laid out (in the use of underlining and italics for example), the guidelines in this booklet are acceptable to all lecturers in the School on modules that use the Harvard style.

Why reference?
When you write academic assignments, you are expected to acknowledge all the sources you have referred to, so your reader knows where the information you are using has come from. It is therefore important that any statements you make in your work are supported by references to the materials you have read.

Good referencing is important because it
• • • • shows the sources you have used in your work enables other people to find the sources you have used supports facts and claims you have made in your work avoids the accusation of plagiarism.

Does it matter what referencing system I use?
There are various referencing styles, and all are correct. However most Schools and programmes within Oxford Brookes University, including most at Westminster Institute of Education, use the Harvard (Author-date) system, and this is the system explained in this guide.

Edition 1 September 2008
© Westminster Institute of Education Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

Contents
How this guide works 1 How to use sources in your writing
Acknowledgement Paraphrase Summary Quotation How to place references in your text Citing secondary sources Page 4 This section looks closely at the different ways you can refer to what you read in your writing.

2 How to present your reference list
References or bibliography? How to reference a journal article How to reference a book How to reference an internet source

Page 10
This section shows you how to write the references for your reference list at the end of your assignment. You can see exactly how to write references for a journal article, a book, and an internet source.

3 Essential sources and examples
Journal article references Book references A chapter in a book The same author has several publications

Page 14
Here are models for referencing some of the essential sources you may use in your work.

4 Other sources you might want to use

Page 16
Here are models for referencing some of the less frequently used sources you may want to use in your work, such as lecture notes and films.

5 Avoiding plagiarism

Page 17
If you follow our guidelines, you will not plagiarise by accident and will be well on the way to developing a good academic style. This section highlights pitfalls to avoid.

6 Frequently asked questions

Page 18
Here you can find answers to questions students often ask. If you have a question which this handbook does not answer, ask your module leader or programme leader.

Edition 1 September 2008

© Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

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How to reference
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1 | How to use sources in your writing
This section outlines good practice in how to use your sources in writing. It explains and gives examples of • Acknowledgement • Paraphrase • Summary • Quotation It shows • when it is useful to use each of these citation styles • how to use each citation style clearly and accurately

Acknowledgement
You may find that an author has provided you with an overarching idea or structure for your...
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