International Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Tutor: Professor Marian Jones
Word count: 4861
Degree:MSC Finance and Mangement
This report aims at examining the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship, as well as the inner relationship between them from the angle of the principle theories of entrepreneurship and innovation. The major approach adopted is choosing three specific firms and making comparison and contrast. In order to analysis, evaluate and reveal the causes and effects during the period of establishment of each firm，in the process of their internationalization and even in current stage based on the relevant study of literature.
In recent years, innovative activities began to occupy the most important role in commercial pattern and it is seen as the basis of competitive advantage (Zahra, 2011). Understanding the role of entrepreneur in starting and developing process of a company is a vital part to acquire knowledge of the fate of the global entrepreneur. The international obstacles and opportunities are specific issues covered several entry mode strategies, which are faced by every international entrepreneur (Hisrich, 2013). However, theories only through specific case study, can be materializated and easily understood . The general objectives of this report are using knowledge of international innovation to analyze the innovation activities of three entrepreneurs and their firms (include Dean Kamen and Segway, Richard Branson and the Virgin Group and Steve Jobs and Apple Corp). Firstly, comparing and contrasting the three companies and find out similarities and differences in how they start and make a critical evaluation on extent and form of international business activity of the three firms at the current time. Secondly, focusing on how the entrepreneurial Personal factors influenced early development of the firms and strategic vision and planning influenced long term success. Finally, outlining the timeline of their internationalisation process, and drawing on theories of entre modes the firms used when they into different countries.
2. Similarities and differences in how they start and where they are now.
After doing some researches on Segway, Virgin and Apple, key similarities and differences can be found. This part will focus on the similarities and differences between these three firms in their start up and current situation followed with their different scope of international business operations. 2.1 Similarities.
These three firms have two common aspects in terms of some factors of the founding entrepreneurs’ role and international vision of current time. Firstly, the role of founding entrepreneurs in some aspects. They are all the founder of the firms. The Segway was founded by Dean Kamen in 2001, Steve Jobs of Apple in 1976, Richard Branson of Virgin in 1970. Besides initial founders of the firms, they also play the roles of promoter and creative director. As R.H .Brockhaus (1980) stated entrepreneurs are restless and continue to seek new opportunities. In addition, the international visions of these three are similar. They are all involved into the international business scope. Virgin Group employed 50,000 people around the world and covered 34 counties by different types of governance. Segway’s global presence has grown substantially and its expansion continues in Europe, Middle East and Africa. Apple maintains 408 retail stores in fourteen countries as well as the online Apple Store and iTunes Store in 2013. 2.2 Differences.
These three firms may show differences in promoted factor of the founding, mode of governance, type of innovation, change of organisations and current market position. Firstly, different promoted factors.The founding of the firms was promoted by different innovations or ideas. As for Segway, under the circumstance that traffic jam as well as air pollution becomes...
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