The subject of this report is India in medieval time. Medieval time is the time between 500C.E-1400C.E. India has always been diverse and rich in culture and architecture places like Gandhara was rich with culture of different regions of world. That’s because it had influences from people coming from different areas like when Alexander came from Greek civilization. World’s first university was in Taxila. It became the centre of education. In medieval times invaders mainly Arabs came to this area and thus had affects on the India. On other hand Europe was going through dark ages wars were going on then crusades but after that church grew very powerful and their art and architecture starts developing keeping church as centre of every thing. Their whole art was religious based and was for church. In this report I will be talking about how India was diverse by talking about its various aspects.
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
• SOCIETY STRUCTURE
• POSITION OF WOMEN
• TRADE CENTRES
• TRADE ROUTES
• TRADING COUNTRIES
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
Structure of society was that it was divided in caste system. There was a strong caste system in India that we don’t see in Europe. Since it was mainly an agriculture based society that demands caste system for an efficiently working society. Since areas were ruled individually there was difference in society structure in different areas too. They had different gods and thus different rituals. On other hand most people in Europe did farming too but they were servants, peasants or serfs.
People lived in joint family system i.e. husband wife their children grand children their wives all lived under same roof. The eldest male person was used to be the head of family. Even today in many parts of India and even in Pakistan still live in joint family system. They had importance of respecting their elders such as saying namaste (used to greet others on meeting) and they touch feet of elders, gurus and their gods out of respect. Arrange marriages were planned. Family elders used to decide where to marry their child after verifying the age, height, looks, family values, financial background of family and matching their horoscopes. There was tradition of taking dowry that we can still see in our society.
POSITION OF WOMEN
In my point of view I don’t think women had good status in India in middle ages. Their marriage, up bringing and widowhood depended upon which caste they are from. They had tradition of sati. Sati means “true wife” and the tradition was that the women whose husband died was burnt alive to prove her loyalty and love for her husband and to be with him in after life. The women who were not burnt were suppose to live very simple life, no make-up and jewelry, had to wear white sari and sleep on floor and only one meal a day without honey, meat, wine and salt. Today this is against law of India. Treating women in such way is ridiculous they should have as much right to live as men. On other hand in Europe women could remarry.
Different religions were followed in India in medieval time like Buddhism, Jainism, Hinduism and later Islam spread by Sufis. They had a number of religious festivals that they still celebrate today. Navratri, diwali, ganesh chathruti, durga poja, holi, rakshabandhan and dussehra are the religious festivals of Hinduism. People believe in different gods thus they have different rituals and temples. “the belief that rituals bestow authority and power was widespread and additional incentive was the promise of heavenly rewards.” (Thapar, 2002)
People of a region had usually different god than other like some people worshipped durga...
Bibliography: Thapar, Romila. ‘The Penguin History of ‘Early India’: From the Origins to AD 1300’. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2002.
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