How to Write References
Library and Learning Resources
Table of Contents
Section 1. Preface 2. 3. Introduction – why, when & what? The Harvard Referencing System 3.1 How do I cite the item in the text of my assignment? 3.2 General Rules Authors, Dates, Titles, Edition, Place, Publisher, Other information, Transliteration of Non-Western Alphabets 3.3 Detailed Examples i. Books (including Electronic Books) ii Journal Articles (including Electronic Journal Articles) iii. Newspaper Articles (including Online Newspaper Articles) iv. Websites v. Conference Proceedings vi. Dissertations and Theses vii. Official Publications Acts of Parliament, Statutory Instruments, Command Papers including Green and White Papers viii. Music ix. Maps, Illustrations, Photographs and Reproductions of Artworks x. Sound Recordings xi. Films, Videocassettes and DVDs xii. Broadcasts Xiii. Scriptural Citations xiv. Unpublished Material Lecture Notes, Information Sheets, Letters, Questionnaires xv. Electronic Materials Discs, Computer Programs, E-Mails, PowerPoint Presentations, Discussion Forums, Moodle, UCEEL xvi. Verbal Materials Lectures, Interviews xvii. Legal Materials 4. 5. Vancouver System Further Reading Page 3 4 6 6 7
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This guide is an introduction to writing references and covers the most common types of material in both print and electronic form: books, chapters in books, internet resources, conferences and their papers, official publications, dissertations and theses, journal articles, printed music, letters and e-mails, lecture notes, sound recordings, videos (and DVDs), images, pictures and illustrations and maps. Library and Learning Resources have endeavoured to ensure the information provided in this guide is accurate but take no responsibility for any inaccuracies. Always check with the person marking your work to see if you have referenced correctly. In addition, your faculty or school may also have produced subject-specific reference guides. Further help is also available from the Academic Skills Centre (at City North on the third floor of Galton Building and at Millennium Point). Tip – Saving Time Make sure that you get all the reference information you need while you still have the source material (e.g. book) in front of you. You will waste a lot of time if you have to have to go back and find this information later. For example: if you make a photocopy, check that you have the page numbers; if you interview someone, make a note of the date; if you print a web page, make a note of the full web address and the date on which you accessed it. Confidentiality The Faculty of Health, in particular, has strict guidelines on confidentiality. To quote from their Undergraduate and Postgraduate Course Handbooks (2004):“In all assessed work, if the patient/client‟s name or that of a member of staff or institution is included in any part of the work, including appendices, it will fail. The work will be deemed a “technical fail” and will receive a zero mark.”
Why should I include references in my work? 1. 2. 3. It shows the range of reading that you have done. This gains you marks. You may support your arguments with the opinion of acknowledged experts and use data from reputable sources. This can make your own arguments more convincing. It is a basic academic requirement to show details of the sources of your information, ideas and arguments. Doing so means that you cannot be accused of plagiarism, i.e. stealing from another person‟s work.
When should I include references in my work? 1. 2. Whenever you quote someone else‟s work. This does not just include words but also tables, charts, pictures, music, etc. When you rewrite or summarise someone else‟s work in your own words.
Why should I give such detailed information? The purpose of the details provided is to make it easy for someone else to follow up and trace the materials...
Citations: Respondee Year Title of Questionnaire. Date completed
Wilkins, B (2004) Questionnaire on Library Services
The following may be of further help to you: The Bluebook : A Uniform System Of Citation (2000) 17th ed
Library and Learning Resources, Birmingham City University, http://library.bcu.ac.uk
2010 (rev 2011)
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