Learning how to reference

Topics: Typography, Reference, Citation Pages: 17 (3376 words) Published: September 23, 2013
Faculty of Health

Harvard-style Referencing Guidelines

Contents
Introduction
Citation and References
Confidentiality
Citing
Multiple Authors and et al.
Direct Quotations
References List and Appendices
Bibliography
Where to find the relevant details
Referencing…
a book
an e-book
a journal article
Secondary references
Chapters within edited books
Forum postings
Maintaining confidentiality of source material
Anonymous works
Government or Official Publications
Law Reports
Statistics
Internet and WWW publications
A home page
Moodle
Powerpoint
An example Reference List

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Introduction
The Harvard style (also known as the ‘author-date system’) is the most commonlyused style of referencing worldwide. Citing references is a way of letting your reader know where you found your information. It is standard academic practice and you must do this in all your assignments. We use the term "citing" as a quick way of referring to citing references, but there are actually two inter-related parts in the process.

Citation
A citation is essentially a marker you put in your text to show that you are referring to a source, for example, you may have given a direct quotation or summarised the ideas from the source. The marker you use links to the reference.

Reference
A reference gives full details about a source you have cited in your text. References are listed, in alphabetical order, at the end of your assignment, before any appendices. Referencing is an essential part of academic scholarship, and ethical values demand that authors identify the sources used in their work.

You are referencing in order to:


Acknowledge an intellectual debt to another author where you have drawn from his or her published work or ideas, either explicitly or implicitly.



To support specific facts or claims which you make in your text.



To enable your reader to find sources to which you have referred easily and quickly.

Failure to identify sources upon which you draw is plagiarism, a serious academic offence. (To see the University’s Student Disciplinary Policy follow this link http://diglib4.bcu.ac.uk/webservices/jawsopendoc.aspx?id=77411 Confidentiality

Confidentiality must be maintained within referencing as well as your written work. The following statement of confidentiality can be found in the Faculty’s Guidelines: Guide to Academic Procedures: Confidentiality in Learning, Teaching and Assessment. If a patient’s/client’s name or that of a member of staff is included in any part of your work including appendices (if they are not available to the general public), you will fail. The work will be deemed a ‘technical fail’ and will receive a mark of 1% only. Success in the resubmitted work will be subject to capping, as for any resubmission. See the full policy in your student handbook for further guidance.

Guidance is provided in these referencing guidelines regarding the maintenance of confidentiality of source material.
Citing - Referring to or summarizing an author’s viewpoint in your text If you are referring to the general theme of the book, page numbers are unnecessary. If the author’s surname occurs naturally in the text, the year follows in round brackets. If not, insert the name and year in round brackets at the end, e.g.:

Carlson (1981) obtained results which...
In a recent study (Carlson 1990)...
Where you are quoting or referring to figures or data, page numbers must be included, e.g.: Schon (1991, p.17) found that “several factors contributed to the emergence of professional pluralism" which shows that…

In some professions, awareness of uncertainty, complexity, instability, uniqueness, and value conflict has led to the emergence of professional pluralism (Schon 1991, p. 17).

2

Multiple Authors
If there are up to three authors, all surnames should be given before the date, e.g.: Weyham, Reheman...

Citations: In text: This injection policy was apparently not followed in other clinical areas
(Anonymous, 2006).
In Reference List: ANONYMOUS. (2006). A third of needlestick injuries easily
avoidable, expert says
treatment of Christopher Clunis. Cmnd. 9543, London: HMSO (Ritchie
report).
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (2004). Home Oxygen Therapy Service:
Service Specifications
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