Management and Planning
Management: Theory, Practice and Application/330
Planning is identifying the goals to be accomplished and making a decision to move forward the suitable actions needed to achieve those goals (Bateman and Snell, 2009). Examples of planning may include examining current situation, predicting the future, establishing goals, choose what types of activities one will engage, and selecting the resources needed to achieve the said goals (Bateman and Snell, 2009). In order for a company to be successful, the organization must have a systematic process of making decisions about goals and activities that the group will pursue in order to achieve its objectives. Furthermore, planning is an effort that is directed and controlled by managers of an organization and draws on the knowledge and experience of employee’s throughout the organization (Bateman and Snell, 2009). This paper will discuss the planning functions of management within Apple Inc. Apple Inc., was co-founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, in 1976. Steve Jobs who revolutionized consumer technology, was able to slash expenses from $8.1 billion in 1997 to $5.7 billion in 1999 by outsourcing manufacturing, trimming inventories, shifting 25% of sales to an online store, and slicing the number of distributors from the double digits to two (Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 2000). In addition to outlining Apple’s planning function of management, this paper also discusses legal, ethical, and social responsibility issues that impact Apple Inc. and its success. For example, in 1994, Apple Computer Inc. was in a lawsuit with Microsoft Corporation over patent protection (Sherman, 2010). Finally, the paper will conclude with three factors that influence Apple’s strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Factors include innovation, profitability, and resources to take advantage of opportunities for growth. Employee’s lack of commitment is also a factor that can affect the tactical planning within the planning function. Additionally, environmental issues also have an effect on Apple’s contingency planning. Planning Function of Management within Apple Inc.
Strategic planning involves making decisions about an organization’s long-term goals and strategies (Bateman and Snell, 2009). Strategic goals are major targets or end results that relate to the long-term survival, value, and growth of an organization (Bateman and Snell, 2009). It is customary that top-level managers establish the strategic goals that reflect effectiveness and efficiency. Typical strategic goals include growth, increasing market share, improving profitability, boosting return investment, fostering quantity and quality of services and goods (Bateman and Snell, 2009). Apple Inc. was co-founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, in 1976, in which they worked out of their garages. Steve Jobs had a vision to be the best in consumer technology. Apple ignited the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and reinvented the personal computer in the 1980s with the Macintosh. 1983 Apple lost its position as chief supplier of personal computers in Europe to IBM. Apple attempted to make a comeback by marketing the Lisa computer which did not sell well. The factor that influenced Apple’s strategic planning at this point was the innovation of the team as well as the competitors. Apple was having difficulty designing the software to link together a number of Lisas and was finding it hard to break IBM’s hold on the business market. As a result, Apple’s earning went down and its stock plummeted (Funding Universe, 2010). Steve Jobs ended up resigning from the company; however, he was not going to walk away silently. In addition to Apple’s loosing its position, the company has faced many legal issues as well. Apple sought to prevent Microsoft from using graphical user interface as their patent (Funding Universe, 2010). Court proceedings lasted...
References: Bateman and Snell. (2009) Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, 8th edition.
Business Dictionary (2010). Retrieved from businessdictionary.com.
Enderle, Rob. (2010). Apple and the Ethical/Business Problems of Child Labor and Other Unsavory Practices. IT Business Edge.
Funding Universe. (2010). Apple Computer Incorporated. Retrieved from fundinguniverse.com-histories-apple.
Reference for Business. (2011). Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Retrieved from referencefor
Sherman, Erik. (2010). The CBS Interactive Business Network. Retrieved from Bnet.com-technology-business/apple.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document