referencing

Topics: Citation, Bibliography, Writing Pages: 130 (29671 words) Published: November 13, 2013
Guide to assignment
writing and referencing
(4th edition)

www.deakin.edu.au/study-skills

Guide to assignment
writing and referencing
(4th edition)

Written by Marie Gaspar, with the assistance of Meron Shepherd, Language and Learning Advisers, Student Life
Published by Deakin University
First published 2005
Second edition 2007
Third edition 2009

Revised 2009 [i.e. 2010]

Fourth edition 2011

Revised 2012

Revised 2013
ISBN 978 1 74156 144 9
© Deakin University 2013
Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia

Contents

Writing assignments at university

6

Reading8
Note taking

11

Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting

13

Check your understanding: activities on summarising, paraphrasing and quoting

18

Language and style

39

Referencing41
Avoiding plagiarism and collusion

44

The author–date (Harvard) style

48

The APA (American Psychological Association) style

59

The documentary-note (Oxford) style

71

Law style

79

Numbered citation style

89

Vancouver style

96

Electronic sources: some guidelines

105

Useful resources

108

Glossary111

T

his guide has been written especially for students beginning at Deakin. It offers information about assignment writing and referencing for those coming to university from the Australian school system, those returning to study after a break from formal education, those transferring from other institutions, and international students.

Writing assignments at university

W

riting is a difficult yet rewarding task. It is not an easy, neat, linear process – for most of us, at least! Rather, writing is intellectually challenging, messy and circular. However, it is a skill that can be learned and developed. With practice, by reading in your subject areas and developing awareness of how various types of texts are structured, you, as a student writer*, can gain competence and confidence in your writing. Writing is a process. It is often in the actual act of writing that we come to find out what we think and discover what we know. Because writing is a thinking process, writers must allow themselves time for their writing and thinking to evolve.

Writing at university is different from some workplace writing. For example, at work you may only need a concise list of points. However, at university, students are expected to elaborate on points with argument and explanation.

University writing requirements differ from the writing students are expected to do in secondary school.
niversity students are usually expected to research more U
widely and in more depth.
ssignments set at university tend to be longer.
A
niversity students may also be expected to take a more critical U
and questioning attitude to knowledge than what may have
been required in secondary school.

* The word writer is used for the student writer and the word author for the creator of a published work.

6 | Guide to assignment writing and referencing

When writing assignments, you are required to think clearly and critically, use valid evidence, and produce well-structured and coherent pieces of writing. This applies broadly in all academic fields of study (disciplines).

The writing you are required to do for your subjects (units) can involve a range of text types: • essays
reports
papers based on case studies
literature reviews
short answers and problem solving of tutorial questions. Have you ever wondered why written assignments are such a popular way of assessing student learning? It is because writing is both:
a product of learning (your finished assignment displays your learning) • a tool for learning (through the process of writing, writers can clarify their thoughts and refine their understanding).

Writing is not easy and it takes time, but it is worth the effort!

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