Referencing: The Harvard System

Topics: Citation, Bibliography, APA style Pages: 5 (2801 words) Published: May 19, 2013
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Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching

Referencing: The Harvard System
Use this sheet to help you:
FollowtheHarvardreferencingconvention • CiteonlinesourcesusingtheHarvardstyle

5minuteselftest
Whatisthedifferencebetweenin-textandbiobliographicalcitations? HowdoestheHarvardSystemdifferfromtheAPA? Howshouldyouciteinternetsources?

Thispublicationcanbecitedas:Davies,W.M.(2007),TheHarvard System,CentreforExcellenceinLearningandTeaching,Faculty ofBusinessandEconomics,theUniversityofMelbourne. http://fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt Further credits: Beaumont, T. (content changes and editing), Pesina,J.(designandlayout). Some,orallofthematerialinthishelpsheet,appearin:Martin Davies(2011),StudySkillsforInternationalPostgraduateStudents. Basingstoke,UK.:Palgrave,MacMillan.ISBN:140399580X.

fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt

The Harvard System
TheHarvardsystemofreferencingisverysimilartotheAPAsystemofreferencing(see CELT Booklet: Basic Referencing Using the APA System)buttherearesubtledifferencesin howthereferencelistiswritten:

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Ituses“and”not“&”betweenmultipleauthors Thepublishers’nameappearsbeforetheplaceofpublication,separatedbyacomma(in Theyearofpublicationneednotbeenclosedinparentheses(…)thoughitisonsome Allmajoritemsarefollowedbycommasandnotfullstops(asintheAPA) “pp”forinclusivepagenumbersaregivenforjournalarticlesinHarvard,butnotAPA. versionsofHarvard APAitisplaceofpublicationthenpublisherseparatedbyacolon“:”)

Sample Harvard Reference List
Abrami,P.C.,d’Appollonia,S.andRosenfield,S.1997,‘TheDimensionalityofStudent RatingofInstruction;WhatweKnowandWhatweDoNot’,inHigherEducation: HandbookonTheoryandResearch,vol.II,(edSmart,J.C.)AgathonPress,NewYork. Abrami,P.C.,Dickens,W.J.,Leventhal,L.andPerry,R.P.1980,’DoTeacherStandards forAssigningGradesAffectStudentEvaluationsInstruction?,’JournalofEducational Psychology,vol.72,pp.107-118. Boex,J.F.2000,’IdentifyingtheAttributesofEffectiveEconomicsInstructors:AnAnalysisof StudentEvaluationofInstructorData’,JournalofEconomicsEducation,vol.31,no. Summer,pp.211-226. Braskamp,L.A.andOry,J.C.1994,Assessingfacultywork:Enhancingindividualand institutionalperformance,Jossey-Bass,SanFrancisco. Cashin,W.E.1988,‘StudentRatingsofTeaching:ASummaryoftheResearch’,inIDEAPaper, vol.20,CenterforFacultyEvaluationandDevelopment,Manhattan,Kansas:Kansas StateUniversity. Cashin,W.E.1990,‘StudentsdoRateDifferentAcademicFieldsDifferently’,inStudents

RatingsofInstruction:IssuesforImprovingPractice:NewDirectionsforTeaching andLearning,vol.43,(edsTheall,M.andFranklin,J.)Jossey-Bass,SanFrancisco,pp. 113121.

Cashin,W.E.1992,’StudentRatings:TheNeedforComparativeData,’InstructionalEvaluation andFacultyDevelopment,vol.12,pp.1-6. Feldman,K.A.1989a,’TheAssociationbetweenStudentRatingsofSpecificInstructional DimensionsandStudentAchievement:RefiningandExtendingtheSynthesisofData fromMultisectionValidityStudies,’ResearchinHigherEducation,vol.30,pp.583-645. Feldman,K.A.1989b,’InstructionalEffectivenessofCollegeTeachersasJudgedbyTeachers themselves,CurrentandFormerStudentsColleagues,AdministratorsandExternal (Neutral)Observers,’ResearchinHigherEducation,vol.30,pp.583-645.

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The Harvard System
Itisimportanttorealisethattherearetwokindsofcitationsneeded,whetheroneuses HarvardorAPA.Theseareintextcitationsandbibliographic(orreferencelist)citations. Botharenecessary....

Citations: For the bibliographic reference, you identify by surname of author (if available) as usual. If there is no author mentioned, the following conventions apply. Include the following in this order:
• ‘Name of article/page’ (This is the page you are citing from, not necessarily the • • • •
“index” or main page) year in brackets (…) Name of journal/main website page (in italics) URL: http://etc.--in ROUND brackets— parentheses, (…) date of creation of site e.g., 14/5/01
PLUS: • Accessed: your date of use of the page in SQUARE brackets. […]
NOTE: The date of use of the page is usually different from date of creation, and is therefore important for accuracy given that pages are continually updated. e.g., ‘The Department of Management’, (2001) Faculty of Business and Economics, (URL: http:// etc ...) 14/3/01 [Accessed: 30/4/01]. NOTE: URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, which identifies the source of the material. This begins with a code for the type of access involved (“http://”, “ftp://”, “gopher://”, etc). If you wanted to cite the document we are referring to above it would be: Quinion, M., (1999), Citing Online Sources, (URL: http://www.quinion.com/words/articles/citation.htm) [Accessed: 10 March 2001]. Make sure you break the lines in a sensible place and never introduce hyphens. NOTE: In terms of managing reference information it is advisable to begin compiling your reference list as soon as you start reading. Add everything you read. Delete as necessary later. Using the Harvard system is made easy by a specific computer program designed for the purpose, e.g. EndNote. This is available for free for students. http://lib.unimelb.edu.au/endnote/index.html
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