research methodology

Topics: Citation, Bibliography, Typography Pages: 7 (1406 words) Published: January 4, 2014
Harvard Referencing Quick Guide
What is referencing?
Referencing is a system used in the academic community to indicate where ideas, theories, quotes, facts and any other evidence and information used to undertake an assignment, can be found.

Why do I need to reference my work?






To avoid Plagiarism, a form of academic misconduct.
Referencing your work correctly ensures that you give appropriate credit to the sources and authors that you have used to support your research. Referencing the sources that you have used for your assignment demonstrates the evidence and research that you have undertaken to complete and support your ideas.

Referenced work enables the reader to independently consult the same materials that you have used.

What do I need to reference?
All the information that you have used in your assignment will need to be acknowledged. It is a good idea to make a note of all the details of the sources that you use for your assignment as you undertake your research.

Harvard examples in this guide are based on benchmarks in:
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE (2010). BS ISO 690:2010. Information and documentation – Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. Switzerland: ISO Copyright Office.

NEVILLE, C. (2010) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd Ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

The basics
Harvard is known as the Name & Date system:
1. Citations are written in the text of your assignment by citing the author’s family/surname followed by the date of the source in brackets i.e. Brown (2010). 2. A complete list of all the citations used in your text will need to be provided at the end of your assignment. This can be called your reference list or bibliography and needs to be presented in alphabetical author/originator order. Capitals:

The family/surname of authors or originators of sources are only capitalised in your end reference list not in the body of your work.
Italics & underlining:
Only the title of the source of information is italicized or underlined, but only choose one method for continuity throughout your assignment.
Punctuation:
Harvard has no one true style of punctuation so the generally accepted rule (BS ISO 690:2010) is to be consistent with your style of punctuation throughout the whole of your assignment.
Harvard Quick Referencing Guide Oct 2012

1

How to reference sources
Here are some examples of how to reference commonly used materials. If you need more guidance please look at http://www.staffs.ac.uk/refzone or ask the academic skills tutors/librarians for help.

Book (1 author)
Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Ed.) or (Eds.) – in brackets for editor(s). (Publication year in brackets) Book title - italicised or underlined. Series title and volume if available. Edition – if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher. Bibliography Example:

NEVILLE, C. (2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
In-text Example:
Neville (2007) argues that........
“Quotation” (Neville, 2007 p.76)

Book (2 to 3 authors)
Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. and FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Ed.) or (Eds.) – in brackets for editor(s). (Publication year in brackets) Book title - italicised or underlined. Series title and volume if available. Edition – if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Bibliography Example
BRADBURY, I. BOYLE, J. and MORSE, A. (2002) Scientific Principles for Physical Geographers. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
In-text Example:
Bradbury, Boyle and Morse (2002)...
As noted by Bradbury, Boyle and Morse (2002)
“Quotation” (Bradbury, Boyle and Morse, 2002 p.51)

Book (4 or more authors)
It is discretionary as to whether you list all the authors as in the example or use ‘et al’ or ‘and others’ as below:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. et al. or and others. (Ed.) or (Eds.) – in brackets for editor(s)....

Citations: 690:2010) is to be consistent with your style of punctuation throughout the whole of
your assignment.
In-text Example:
Neville (2007) argues that........
“Quotation” (Neville, 2007 p.76)
Book (2 to 3 authors)
In-text Example:
Bradbury, Boyle and Morse (2002)...
As noted by Bradbury, Boyle and Morse (2002)
“Quotation” (Bradbury, Boyle and Morse, 2002 p.51)
Example:
As noted by Marshall (1975)........
“Quotation” (Marshall, 1975 p.76)
E-Book
SADLER, P. (2003) Strategic Management. [Online] Sterling. VA Kogan Page.
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