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APA Citation Style, 6th edition
Some classes are still using the 5th edition, so be sure to use the right handout!!! •
The Table of Contents is on the back of the handout.
Examples of citing within the text of the paper appear after the Reference List examples.
Read the Changes section and the Tips section because duplication of information is minimized.
When an exact example is not available, find the closest example and adapt it as needed.
All deviations from the APA Handbook were personally okayed by APA’s style experts.
The authority for APA style is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (called Handbook here), which is available at most libraries for in-library use. The Handbook is sold by the AC Bookstore and other booksellers.
Changes in the 6th Edition & Exceptions to the APA Handbook
—Changes in the 6th edition
DOI numbers for sources. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number is like a social security number for a document—a unique, permanent, identifier. APA recommends including DOIs in citations when they are provided by the source. They are not always provided. Print sources rarely provide DOIs. DOIs are assigned by publishers and by CrossRef.org, a non-profit clearinghouse. Where to look for DOIs. Check the other citation information, the top and bottom of the item, and the copyright area. The reader/instructor can go to http://crossref.org and paste in a DOI from a citation to get information about the publication. When DOIs are used, URLs and other publication information are not required, according to APA. DOIs start with a “10“ prefix, and they are typically the last item in a citation entry. Examples:
Online citation from journal publisher’s website
Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31(6), 989-1007. doi:10.1080/03640210701703725 Journal article from library database. (See the Exceptions section if you want more information.) Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31(6), 989-1007. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database. doi:10.1080/03640210701703725
Electronic book from NetLibrary database
McCafferty, T. (2003). The market is always right : The 10 principles of trading any market. Retrieved from NetLibrary database. doi:10.1036/0071416102
Publisher location. Book citations now must include the state in addition to the city. The country is now required for countries outside the U.S., even for well-known cities, e.g., London, England. If the location is not provided, put N.p. where it would appear in the citation. (The n.p. ruling was made by an APA style expert). Example: Clark, N. J. (2009). Tall tales from the American West. N.p.: Jubilee Press.
Amarillo College Library
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Retrieval dates of electronic sources can now be omitted except for those whose content is expected to change over time, such as wikis, e.g., Wikipedia. (Note: Even the founder of Wikipedia says it should not be used for serious research.) Include a format type in square brackets after the title for source types not used routinely. Formats listed in the Handbook are letters to the editor, special issues, special sections, monographs, abstracts, audio podcasts, data files, brochures, motion pictures, lecture notes, CDs, computer software, video webcasts, and supplemental material. Example: Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author. Exceptions to the Handbook (okayed by experts at APA)
Library database information. The new edition says library database information is not required in citations. However, in response to our inquiry, an APA style expert ruled that...
Citations: Wong, E. (2009). Novel nursing techniques for the Rapid Response System. International Journal of Nursing
Terminologies & Classifications, 20(2), 53-63
Mardesich, J. (1999, October 25). Online music stocks: Expect plenty of static ahead. Fortune, 140(8). Retrieved
from Academic Search Complete database.
Hubbard, I. J., Parsons, M. W., Neilson, C., & Carey., L. M. (2009). Task-specific training: Evidence for and
translation to clinical practice
Murphy, J. (2006, October 27). Reducing the impact of migraines. Practice Nurse, 32(5), 202-203. Retrieved from
CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
Strayer, D. (2006, March 20). Melanoma: The role of immune response. In Evidence-Based Care Sheet series.
Buckley, L. (2006, March 20). Liver cancer. In the Quick Lessons series. Glendale, CA: CINAHL Information
Clemmitt, M. (2006, November 17). Privacy in peril. CQ Researcher, 16(41). Retrieved from CQ Researcher
Clemmitt, M. (2006, November 17). Privacy in peril. CQ Researcher, 16(41), 961-984. Retrieved from CQ
Researcher Online database.
Carter, L., Rukholm, E., & Kelloway, L. (2009). Stroke education for nurses through a technology-enabled program.
Collier, R. (2010). Smoking rates declines stall. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(1): p. 49.
Skiar, H. (2004). Increasing the minimum wage can help the working poor. In K. Balkin (Ed.), Opposing
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