Use Times New Roman (or other Sans Serif types) for the text of your essay / manuscript Your title should be centered, in bold and in upper and lower case (midtstilt, fet skrift, stor bokstav ved “viktige” ord) Subheadings are flush left, in bold, and uses upper and lower case (venstrestilt, fet skrift, store bokstaver ved “viktige” ord) – but this is rarely an issue, since you will be writing fairly short texts and won’t be needing subheadings Double-space everything
Double-space the text
Double-space between lines of body text, titles, headings and block quotations Double-space reference list
Indent the first line of every new paragraph half an inch
Align the text to the left-hand margin
Indent block quotations one half inch
Number all your pages (top righthand corner)
(Sample manuscript text)
This is a piece of text designed to show you how to write using the APA-style of manuscript formatting. APA stands for The American Psychology Association, but it is a reference style that is used by a lot more people than just psychologists! When you start a new paragraph, you do not skip a line. Rather, you indent in by pressing the indent key on your keyboard once. Also, everything you write has to be double-spaced. If you want to quote what someone else has written and the quotation is longer than one line, you need to indent the entire quotation too: This is an example of such a quotation. You indent not only the first line, but you continue to indent the whole thing. That way, the reader can easily see that you have quoted from someone else’s writing. (Langhelle, 2013, p. 5) When you have finished quoting, you do not indent anymore.
Cite everything and everyone that have directly influenced your work, even if you don’t quote them directly but only paraphrase their work or ideas (oppgi alle kilder, selv om du ikke siterer dem direkte, men bare gjenforteller hva andre har sagt / skrevet). Take careful notes while researching your topic to make sure you do not accidentally plagiarize someone else Citing references in the text: use the author-date system. This system allows the reader to find the sources cited in the text in the reference list (listen over kilder), where you list alphabetically every source that you have used.
1. When paraphrasing (ved gjenfortelling) – just author and year, no page number: Example 1:
George (2008) argues that Lord of the Flies shows how even children are capable of random cruelty. Example 2:
Lord of the Flies shows how even children are capable of random cruelty (George 2008).
2. When using a direct quotation – author and year, plus page number(s). Remember to use quotation marks with shorter quotations, or skip the quotation marks and indent the whole thing if the quotation is long:
George argues that Lord of the Flies shows that “there is a terrifying propensity towards wanton cruelty which is evident in children” (2008, p. 31).
There is in Lord of the Flies “a terrifying propensity towards wanton cruelty which is evident in children” (George, 2008, p. 31).
Example 3 (longer quotations):
In Lord of the Flies, we learn that
with filthy body, matted hair, and unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy. (Golding, 2008, p. 225)
Example 4 (longer quotations):
As Golding puts it,
with filthy body, matted hair, and unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy. (2008, p. 225)
Example 5 (longer quotations):
As Golding puts it in Lord of the Flies,
with filthy body, matted hair, and unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy. (p. 225)
References: Flood, A. (2010, September 19).”William Golding’s Daughter Reveals his ‘Darker Side’ in New Book.” Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/sep/19/william-golding-daughter-memoir
Forster, E. M. (1962). “Introduction to William Golding’s Lord of the Flies.” In Golding, W. Lord of the Flies (pp. IX-XII). New York: Coward McCann
George, U. (2008). William Golding: A Critical Study. New Delhi: Atlantic
Golding, W. (2008). Lord of the Flies. London: Faber and Faber
Wikipedia (n.d.) “Lord of the Flies.” Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_the_Flies_(novel)
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